Charolais breed of cows
The Charolais cattle breed, brought up during long-term breeding work, is raised by farmers in order to obtain excellent meat quality from it and for use in crossbreeding with other cattle when producing hybrid lines.
Charolais breed of cows
About Sharolez cattle
The French began to engage in Sharolez breed of cattle in the XVII century, taking as a basis the breed of local animals, which differed in productivity and appearance.
Initially, the ancestors of Charolais cows and bulls were of mixed type, they combined both the milk and meat directions, having a set of working qualities. For a long time, Charolais bulls were used as draft animals. Compared with the representatives of the breed existing today, their ancestors were not so much developed as the current generation, but they had a strong immune system.
The Charolese breed of cows was recorded in the book of records as an independent type in 1864.
It became possible to switch to a new type of cattle only starting from the 1920s, when massive Simmental and Shortgon species were chosen as objects for crossing. The selection of cows and bulls used for procreation began to be made taking into account their indicators of body weight and growth intensity.
The largest in terms of population of Charolais cows today is located in France and totals about 2 million individuals. In addition, it is possible to meet the Charolese breed in farms in 7 dozen countries where this cattle is used in the process of improving the quality of other cattle. The Russian Sharolez population has a little more than a thousand representatives that are in the Tver, Belgorod regions, Stavropol and Tyumen.
The formation of the exterior of cows of the Charolais breed took place over a long period, as a result of which there appeared animals of the meat direction, which have a massive constitution with pronounced developed muscles. They do not accumulate subcutaneous fat in large quantities, therefore they give out dietary meat. The breed description includes its distinguishing features:
- the weight of animals is from 0.9 to 1.7 tons (gobies) and from 0.7 to 1.0 tons (heifers), often larger sizes of animals are recorded,
- the body weight of newborn calves is up to 70 kg,
- Sharole cow grows at the withers up to 1.55 m, the bull up to 1.65 m, reaching 2.2 m oblique in bulls and up to 1.9 m in heifers,
- the girth of the animal’s chest is an average of 2.0 m or more,
- white suit with a light colored nose
- wide frontal bone, small horns,
- low, well-built limbs.
In conditions of private farming, the Charolese cattle retains its qualities for operation for 15 years, while maintaining the functions of reproduction, bringing milk and acting as draft force.
Performance indicators, advantages and disadvantages
Considering that the Charolese line of cows is meat type, its main purpose is to bring quality meat, and this cattle fully lives up to the farmers' hopes. Newborn calves weigh, starting from 30 kg, intensively gaining good weight until they reach the age of two, 1.0-2.0 kg per day. By the age of six months, the calf gains weight up to 0.25 tons.
The Charolais breed gained popularity thanks to record levels of slaughter, live weight and growth rates.
The slaughter yield of meat from an adult animal is from 65% or more. Lean beef has good taste and texture.
In addition, Charolais cows give good milk production rates. The annual milk yield of their fatty dairy products (up to 4.0-4.1% fat content) is kept in the range of up to 2.5 tons, sometimes providing up to 3.0 tons.
Advantages and disadvantages for breeding
For keeping as a producer, the Charolese breed of cows has several advantages:
- its representatives are notable for good heredity, securing good quality characteristics in subsequent generations,
- Cattle quickly adapts to updated conditions of detention, adapting to the short terms of acclimatization,
- charolese refers to pasture animals, which in summer significantly reduces the cost of their maintenance,
- long life span allows using Charolese cattle as useful and rational as possible,
- the breed is characterized by high productivity indicators,
- as a result of slaughter of young animals, the proportion of lean meat significantly exceeds the fat content.
As disadvantages, farmers point to some specific external signs, including dorsal irregularity and scapular bifurcation. In addition, cases of heavy calving were recorded due to the large size of the calves. In Charolais cows, muscular hypertrophy of the posterior torso, which is pathological, has a considerable effect on fertility, which is why barren animals are sometimes found.