Characterization of Siberian mushrooms
On the expanses of Siberian forests there is always a mass of mushrooms, the collection season of which begins in the spring and autumn. Mushrooms are actively used for the preservation and preparation of all kinds of delicious dishes, including a side dish. They are beneficial in their high amino acid content and also delight with their excellent palatability. Nevertheless, Siberian mushrooms are found both edible and poisonous. False mushrooms are also presented, which can be distinguished from edible only by an experienced mushroom picker.
Characterization of Siberian mushrooms
Edible mushrooms of Siberia are evenly distributed in the eastern and western parts. But their collection and preparation requires special skills. After all, representatives of edible and tasty species are easily confused with their poisonous counterparts.
The most popular representative who impresses with his taste and appearance. White boletus is difficult to confuse with any other species. They are distinguished by a spongy hat of a milk or cream color, depending on maturity, as well as a slightly convex leg, which also has a characteristic white color on the cut. This handsome man grows in coniferous, deciduous and mixed.
Porcini mushrooms have a special dislike for moisture, most often it is found on moss coverings. It is harvested in the summer, on the territory of glades and landings. And also in the autumn season - deep in the forests.
Young representatives of the species have a slightly pink hat, which acquires a cream shade with age. The boletus leg is thick and white, slightly cylindrical in shape. So, if you cut it, it will quickly turn blue. Boletuses grow in the woods. They can be found near aspens (as the name implies), as well as poplar and birch. The soil near the oak and willow is also becoming a favorite place for boletus. This mushroom is a mycorrhiza forming agent and without this very interesting and complex “construction” between it and certain types of trees it simply won’t survive.
Boletuses carefully choose the quality of the soil, they create their mycelium in an area with a high content of peat and sand. Collecting such mushrooms is best in July. But, a representative also occurs in the autumn, before the onset of the first frost.
It features a dark hat, which at the break remains white. Most often, the mushroom is harvested at an early age, since with the development it loses its attractive appearance. Obabok always chooses a place well-lit by the sun for growth, but always humid.
Hazelnuts grow in deciduous forests. Mushrooms can be found on a clearing or forest edges.
Fans of such a hunt go for a brown boletus usually in the first half of summer.
Closer to autumn, mushrooms of this species grow again.
By the way. Podbereziki and aspen boletus are united by the common name "obabok", which is also the name of the genus to which they belong - the genus Leccinum (Obabok).
Distributed in taiga forests in Siberia. The view got its name due to the soft and cool hat. As soon as you take it in your hands it seems that this is not a mushroom, but a piece of oil from their refrigerator. The hat itself has a yellow-brown color, its mucous skin, the base of the young mushroom is white or yellowish.
Siberian oleagins grow in coniferous and deciduous forests. They are collected from August to the end of September;
Redheads grow in coniferous forests
Relate it to 1 category. It is distinguished by a reddish-red hat with a characteristic concavity and a short white leg. It is also distinguished by a special aroma and milky juice, painted very brightly in shades of red. It grows in coniferous forests. You need to look for it near the spruce and pine.
It should be added that most often saffron mushrooms are located on the north side of the tree. The first mushrooms can be found in July, the last - in September and October;
Lupus or thistle
The fungus is found in birch, mixed groves in well-lit areas. He got his name for the wave-shaped hat of a pink-orange hue with downy and bent down edges. The species is characterized by a short leg and fragile pulp. It is harvested from late July to mid-September.
On the territory of Siberia there is a huge variety of russula, which differ in the color of the hat. But, they are united by just a specific film on the surface. Based on the name, you should not try the mushroom, because, inexperience, you can "get" to the pale grebe. Russula grow in ordinary and mixed forests. They are collected in early July and until the end of October.
Popular due to the wave-shaped cap. It is appreciated not only for its appearance, but also for its taste and aroma. The most popular representative is distributed in coniferous and mixed forests. They can be searched from July to October.
The hat is yellow, elongated, specific, irregular shape or even depressed, with slightly rounded edges.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
The chanterelle hymenophore is very different in appearance from the spore-bearing layer of other lamellar fungi. They are represented by rather thick folds on the surface of which spores form. In the flesh and spores of the chanterelle there is a natural anthelmintic of quinomannosis. It negatively affects all representatives of arthropods who want to settle in his body. It also affects helminths. Due to the fact that there are practically no worms in the pulp, chanterelles are classified as kosher mushrooms.
They can be found in the midst of summer, when other mushrooms are almost never found. Prevail in mixed forests.
It has a yellow, slightly brown hat with a white stripe. They grow whole families in a few pieces. They are found mainly on 200 species of trees. They bear 2-3 waves per season. It is best to look for them at the end of August-September.
The following categories fall into the category of poisonous (inedible) mushrooms of Siberia:
- Lines: conditionally edible, and therefore, food-tolerant mushrooms that contain poisonous substances in apothecia (fruit bodies) and require careful pre-treatment. Meet in early spring
- Amanita: has a noticeable hat with white flakes (the remains of the bedspread). Attracts with its appearance. It grows near spruce and birch on acidic soils from August to October. When white flakes disappear after rain, this creates a danger for inexperienced mushroom pickers, as they can take such poisonous specimens as representatives of some of the edible species.
- False mushrooms: differ from the edible appearance by a pronounced "skirt" and a characteristic smell. They can be found in the summer and autumn.
- The pig is fat: it is found in coniferous and deciduous forests, in appearance it looks like a fox. Because of the appearance, it is often called a “felt pig”. Toxins are found in the body that are not destroyed during heat treatment.
- Agarik: parasitizes on many species of conifers. An important medicinal mushroom.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
The agaric, or fungus-tinder fungus of larch or larch sponge medicinal has a number of synonyms, but the word "larch" is present in all. The scientific name is Fomitopsis officinalis. This clearly shows that it is a parasite exclusively coniferous and, by name, most often larch (deciduous coniferous). On birch trees, as on other deciduous tree species, this species is not found. Another species is confined to them - the real fungus (Fomes fomentarius). Unfortunately, very often it is confused with agaric. Most likely this is due to the similarity of the sounding of the names “deciduous” and “larch”. The mistakes made such lead to incidents when the real tinder is shown in the photo in the article on agarica. Therefore, if there are no larches in your area, agaric (correspondingly its medicinal derivatives) can only be purchased at a pharmacy.
Therefore, you need to be very careful when collecting. It is better for novice mushroom pickers not to go alone for mushrooms, but try to find a companion experienced in this matter.
Gathering mushrooms should be guided by simple rules:
- Do not touch old and large mushrooms - they are important spore distributors. If accidentally knocked down - hang the mushroom or its hat on a tree branch (so spores will spread better through air currents).
- Fungi with cracks on the entire (or parts) of the surface accumulate toxins, so they should be neglected.
- It is not worth collecting even young edible specimens near roads and highways, as they can absorb all harmful substances like a sponge, including salts of heavy metals.
To make the edible mushroom really tasty, you should use it for its intended purpose, which is already “predetermined” for it by the centuries-old practice of our ancestors:
- For cooking, it is preferable to choose chanterelles, traps and mushrooms.
- For salting, mushrooms, honey mushrooms and butter are suitable. It is best to dry porcini mushrooms and honey mushrooms.
- But if you want to fry mushrooms, then mushrooms, mushrooms, honey mushrooms and chamomile are best suited. With this method of preparation, they are the most delicious and give a rich aroma.