Characteristics of the Ussuri pear variety
Ussuri pear variety is tall and frost-resistant, mainly used as the basis for stock and selection. The fruits are intended for consumption, storage and industrial processing.
Characteristics of the Ussuri pear variety
Ussuri pear is very frost-resistant, withstands air temperatures up to -30-40 ° C. In history, cases have been recorded when a wild tree withstood frosts to -56 ° C.
- Growing slowly. On average, grows by 20-30 cm per year, so it reaches a normal size only by the age of 15.
- Begins to bear fruit only with 10 years of growth. With proper care and nourishment, you can accelerate the beginning of fruit set for several years.
- Durable The garden grows to 70 years. In the wild, it can grow much longer.
- Self-barren. Nearby you need to plant other varieties of fruit trees.
- Unpretentious to the soil. The root system is powerful, but located in breadth, and not inland.
- The flowers are large - up to 4 cm, have a white color and a pronounced smell. The flowering period is about a week.
The fruiting period is August-September. Fruits abundantly. From one tree collect up to 80 kg of fruit.
The tree is very tall, usually reaching 10-15 m. A wild pear can grow even taller.
The crown is pyramidal, wide, sometimes spherical. It reaches 5 m in width. The leaves are oblong, ciliary-serrate. The bark is dark brown. There are growths in the form of thorns.
From beautiful and large flowers, fruits are formed. They grow in a bunch and have a short stalk. The description of the fruits of the Ussuri pear is as follows:
- round in shape, slightly elongated;
- small weight - up to 100 g;
- length up to 6 cm;
- color is yellow with a red side;
- pulp of different colors: from white to pale pink;
- there are stony cells.
The fruits are sour, slightly tart, so it is better to process them. From fruit good compotes and jam turn out.
The fruits of the Ussuri pear can be stored for up to 8 months at a temperature of 0-2 ° C. They darken during storage, but the taste remains the same.
For high yield pear tree need to ensure timely care.
The sowing period of the seeds of the Ussuri Pear is autumn. Before sowing, the seeds of the Ussuri Pear stratify:
- for stratification, the seeds are placed in wet sand;
- a container with them is placed in a refrigerator with a temperature of 0-5 ° C;
- seeds are kept in the refrigerator for 2-4 months.
The most favorable time for planting a seedling is spring or autumn. You can use 1-2 year old seedlings.
It is important that the soil has good drainage. A mixture of turf land, peat and sand is suitable.
The tree needs good care
Dig a hole exactly to the size of the root system of the seedling. Fertilizers and humus are placed in it. You can use a mixture of wood ash with lime in a ratio of 1: 1.5. Another option is to mix manure or humus (60 kg), superphosphate (1.5 kg), potassium chloride (0.7 kg.)
A mound is poured into the middle of the pit and a landing stake is set. The stake is driven deep enough into the ground: by 0.5-1 m. Its lower side is treated with antifungal fluid.
At the end, the tree is covered with earth, rammed and fixed with the help of a landing stake. The pear planted is watched for several weeks until it takes root in a new place.
The Ussuri pear is drought-resistant. The lack of watering affects the condition of the fruit and fruiting.
When watering adhere to the following rules:
- Watering is required when planting and over the next 3-4 days.
- The main watering occurs in spring and autumn. Watering is also necessary in particularly hot weather in the summer. Especially young seedlings need watering.
- The volume of water is 2-3 buckets under each tree. Volume may increase, depending on the weather and condition of the tree.
- The best way to water is sprinkling. Water should fall under the tree in drops for 2-3 weeks.
- To better retain water, a 10-15 cm ditch is dug around the trunk.
Good watering increases the yield of the pear and accelerates its growth. During filling, additional, but moderate, moisture positively affects the taste of the pear.
Mulching and cold protection
The Ussuri pear can withstand severe frosts, but mulching will eliminate any risks.
- Mulching is best done with organic materials. As such material use grass, foliage, humus.
- Mulching is carried out during planting and in the fall.
- To protect against snow, the lower part of the trunk is additionally wrapped. To do this, use agrofiber, burlap or cane.
- The bottom of the trunk is sprinkled with earth at 1-15 cm. In spring, this land is removed and dug up.
Mulch is also used as protection against weeds, but you need to monitor its condition so that it does not become a carrier of diseases.
Pruning of branches is carried out in the second year after planting. The pruning period is spring, when it is still cold enough.
Trimming is carried out to form a crown. In the process, thin out and shorten the branches. Cut the main conductor and side branches to the first kidneys. To enhance air exchange inside the crown, it is thinned out. Cut off excess branches. Pruning is also carried out in order to clean the tree and prevent disease. Sick, dry and broken branches are removed.
Correctly formed crown provides convenience when leaving and picking fruit.
Even such an unpretentious culture as the Ussuri pear needs additional nutrition. Frequency of fertilizer application:
- Each year, the soil is fertilized with nitrogen. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied before flowering.
- Once every 2-3 years, 5 kg of manure is introduced. Manure is replaced with peat or humus.
- Once every 3-4 years, potash and phosphate fertilizers are added. 500 g of potassium chloride and 500 g of superphosphate interfere with 20 kg of humus.
Due to the large amount of lime in the ground, the roots begin to deteriorate. For prevention, a solution of lime is applied to the soil six months before planting.
Diseases and Pests
Some pests and diseases are able to withstand winter cold, therefore, if pests are detected, the soil is treated with a solution of colloidal sulfur.
Rust is transmitted through juniper. To prevent this disease, they monitor the plants that are next to the tree. Against a tartar, the tree is sprayed with a solution of kalbofos, kemifos or nitrafen.
The Ussuri pear is one of the best for growing in the northern regions. Proper care of it provides excellent productivity and a pleasant taste of the fruit.