Characteristics of pear varieties for children
Among the summer varieties with stable fruiting, the Pear is especially popular. It was bred by a breeding institute in Moscow as a result of crossing the summer Duchess and hybrid number 8.
Characteristics of pear varieties for children
Frost-resistant summer variety that is suitable for cultivation in different climatic conditions. It does not require complex agricultural techniques to obtain a high-quality crop.
One of the few ultra-early varieties whose fruits ripen after July 15th. Fruiting is long, pears can be harvested for 1.5 months. Productivity is high, 30-35 kg matures on one adult tree. In the period of fruiting comes in 3-5 years after planting. Pear Children's longevity and preservation of the level of productivity for more than 25 years. It can grow separately, it does not require pollinators, but it can serve as a quality pollinator for summer varieties (Melting, Ilyinka, Cathedral).
The variety is resistant to pests and diseases. Also, the pear Children's easily tolerates subzero temperatures in the winter, does not freeze. Spring frosts for this variety are also not a threat. The variety is resistant to long periods of drought. Such qualities make the variety universal for growing both in the south and in the northern regions.
Children's Pear - a fruit tree with a crown shaped like a pyramid. It grows over 5 m in height. The branches are well developed, with a large number of branches in which the fruits are tied. The annual growth of the branches is 40-50 cm. The leaves are oval, medium sized, dark green, their inner side is green-blue, leafiness is average. The bush begins to bloom in early May.
The fruits grow in a beautiful, uniform shape weighing 85-90 g. The surface is uneven, slightly tuberous. The main color of the fruit is yellow; during ripening, the side is colored in orange-pink. The pulp is juicy, homogeneous, cream-colored. The fruits have a sweet taste. They take off the fruits as they mature, preventing overriding. It can be stored in the refrigerator for 30-35 days without losing taste. They are ideal not only for fresh consumption, but also for preservation, compotes, jams.
Advantages and disadvantages
The variety Pear Children has both advantages and disadvantages.
Among the advantages distinguish:
- early ripening;
- stable yield;
- frost resistance and winter hardiness;
- resistance to fungal diseases;
- universality of use;
Varieties have few drawbacks, among them medium-sized fruits and the need for crown formation are noted.
Seedlings are planted in the fall
Seedlings are planted in autumn or early spring. Agronomists advise planting fruit trees in the fall, in September-October. If you plant a pear exactly in this period, it will have enough time to take root, all the energy will be concentrated on this process. In spring, you can also plant trees, this is done immediately after freezing the soil until the buds open. In the spring, the process of root formation is slowed down, because in parallel the tree will dissolve the buds, grow young branches and leaves.
Choosing a place to land
An important role is played by the choice of a place for planting a pear. Pear tree grows well on drained soils with low-lying groundwater (at a depth of 2.5-3 m). Pears do not tolerate waterlogged soils, poorly rooted, roots form weak, often affected by fungal diseases, can rot. A healthy, well-developed root system is the foundation for the full development of the entire plant.
The landing site is better to choose a well-lit, without strong shading, on the south side of the infield. Protection from the north winds also has a beneficial effect on the cultivation of pears in the garden.
In order for the sapling to take root easily and grow in a well-developed, stably fruiting tree, it must be healthy. When choosing a seedling in a nursery, garden center or at an exhibition, you need to pay attention to the following characteristics:
- root system status;
- general condition of the seedling;
- scion quality;
- the condition of the vaccination site.
The optimal age of the seedlings for planting pear varieties Children is 1-2 years. Young seedlings are easier to root and grow faster. An annual sapling has one central stem; lateral branches are not developed. At the two-year, there are branches of the second order. It is very important to carefully examine the root system: it must be well developed, not mechanically damaged, without mold and rot. The seedling should look healthy, without growths, spots, damage.
For nursery pear seedlings, quince or wild seed pear grafts are used. The time of entry of the pear into fruiting and the height of the tree depends on the scion. Grafted on quince begin to bear fruit earlier, 3 years after planting, grow up to 5 m. On the pear scion, the first fruits are tied for 5 years after planting, and the tree grows more than 5 m.The place of grafting should be well spliced, without unnatural growths.
Landing pit preparation and landing
Having chosen a good seedling and a place for planting, you need to prepare a pit for planting. In order for the pear to take root quickly and the planting succeeds, you need:
- dig a hole 1 x 1 x 0.7 m in size;
- mix land with compost, lowland peat and river sand;
- loosen the bottom of the landing pit and pour a hill of prepared soil;
- pour water, into one pit 1-2 buckets of water.
- establish support in the center of the pit.
Before planting, the seedling root is kept in warm water for 6-12 hours. After this procedure, the plant is planted in a prepared hole, gradually sprinkled with earth, making sure that the roots lie flat and do not bend, and the root neck is at a level of 2-4 cm above the surface. Having fallen asleep completely, they slightly tighten the parabolic circle, attach the trunk to the support, and mulch it with peat or compost 4-5 cm thick. After a week, the seedling is watered with a bucket of water and sprinkled on the ground in case of shrinkage. When frosts occur, the trunk is wrapped with spruce branches or agrofibre: this protects against rodents and severe frosts.
Good care improves tree productivity
The quality of the fruit, the yield and stress resistance of the pear variety of the child depends on the quality of care. In the first years after planting, a thorough approach to agricultural technology is important. In order for the tree to intensively develop, it begins to bear fruit in the periods specified in the description, and there are many fruits ripened, the soil needs to be regularly:
- to water;
- to feed.
A pear is a crop that grows poorly in waterlogged soils and can withstand short-term droughts. But in the first years after planting, it is necessary to carry out regular watering, this is due to the fact that the root system is still not strong enough, and during periods of drought it will not be able to fully provide the plant with moisture. Pear is poured in a period of high temperatures and lack of rain 1-2 times a week, 10-12 liters of water are poured under one tree. Adult fruiting trees are watered at the beginning of flowering until the mass ovary is formed.
The soil is loosened in the near-stem circle every 2-3 weeks to a depth of 15-20 cm. Loosening is carried out after irrigation or rain. This procedure enriches the topsoil, which will have a good effect on the nutrition process, and also prevents the development of fungal diseases, improving gas exchange.
In the early spring and late autumn, the soil around the tree is mulched. Peat, compost, straw, rotted dry manure mixed with soil are used as mulch. Spread the mulch 2-3 cm thick: it protects from spring frosts, extremely low temperatures in winter, warming the soil, improves the soil structure and serves as a top dressing for the tree. Before mulching, the perinosal circle is well watered and loosened.
Top dressing is carried out 2-3 times per season. Young seedlings are fed in spring and autumn with nitrogen fertilizers (urea, manure, chicken droppings).
To fertilize with manure or chicken droppings, slurry is prepared. 1 tbsp. Manure is added to a bucket of water, mixed and insisted for 5 days. Before use, 1 liter of sludge is diluted in a bucket of water. Sprinkle around the trunk: for one seedling, 2-3 liters of fertilizing is enough. When the pears begin to bear fruit, the feeding pattern is changed and fertilized three times per season:
- In the early spring, after soil freezing. Complex fertilizers are used for fruit fertilizers or urea with superphosphate (10 g of urea and 10 g of superphosphate are added per 1 sq. M), fertilizers are embedded in the soil and watered.
- At the beginning of flowering. Feeding with potash fertilizers is carried out, it can be kalimag (10 g / sq. M) or ash at the rate of 1 tbsp. on 1 tree.
- After the harvest. Use phosphate fertilizers. Superphosphate (10 g / sq. M), bone meal, ash is suitable.
Pear Children's - this is a variety that requires the formation and pruning. It starts already after the seedling has been planted; for this, the top of the central trunk is cut off at the level where the tree begins to form a crown. Gardeners practice doing this at a height of 1.3-1.5 m. A section is made over a developed bud with a sharp secateurs, then they are covered with a garden var.
The following pruning is performed in the spring before the onset of sap flow and swelling of the kidneys. Trimming gradually form branches 2, 3 and subsequent levels.
Pruning of adult pear trees is carried out every spring. They adjust the shape of the crown, cut old and dried branches, and also clean out the branches that grow inward and thicken the crown. All sections are carefully coated with garden varieties.
With the help of pruning, you can not only form a beautiful tree, but also protect it from the development of fungal diseases arising from thickening of the crown and poor ventilation.
As the description shows, Children's pear is suitable for growing in individual garden plots, especially those where there is no way to plant more than one pear tree. This variety ripens quickly, has small, but very tasty and sweet fruits.