Characteristics of Marquette grapes
Marquette grapes began to be grown in the regions of Russia not so long ago - about 10 years ago. But even in such a short time, he managed to win the hearts of domestic winemakers, thanks to its unpretentiousness and frost resistance.
Characteristics of Marquette grapes
The variety is young, it is only 30 years old, in Russia it began to be grown a little more than 10 years ago. It was introduced by American breeders by phasing eight varieties.
Marquette grapes ripen in late August and early September, has high frost resistance. These characteristics make it possible to grow it in different regions of Russia, including the northern ones. Vines are able to withstand frost to -38 ° C, there is no need to cover them.
The variety is vulnerable to spring frosts and freezing rains. All due to the fact that the buds on the vines open early. With the onset of spring, bushes are covered with non-woven fiber, which protects the vines from death.
More attention to themselves require annual seedlings. The older the vine bush, the better it survives in low temperatures. Nevertheless, it is imperative to cover the bushes in early spring.
According to the description, Marquette is a technical grape variety that produces excellent pomegranate wine. The brush is dense, conical. grapes are small, dark blue. The berries are covered with a whitish coating, which allows you to keep the brush longer. Bunches rarely grow, about 2 per vine.
- sugar content - up to 26%;
- acidity - 2.9% (although it almost does not taste like);
- productivity - up to 100 kg / ha;
- bunch weight - about 300-400 g.
The bush grows vertically, which makes it easier to care for: the vines do not have to be tied.
How to grow
The variety is easily propagated by seedlings and cuttings. Planting time does not matter, it is allowed to plant it both in spring and autumn. It is important to choose a place to land. Plots with loose earth are needed, it is better - on a hill where there is no groundwater. For the seedlings, sandstone and loam are excellent. Seedlings are usually planted in a trench way.
- They dig a trench about 1.5 m wide and about 1 m deep.
- Drainage is filled up to the bottom, usually it is broken brick, the layer should be about 20 cm thick.
- A mixture of chernozem and sand is poured on top.
- On the sides of the trench lay 4 pieces of plastic pipe of 50 cm, one end of each pipe should remain on the surface. It is convenient for watering and fertilizing bushes.
- The bushes are laid out in a trench at a distance of 1 m from each other.
- They are dug up with earth to the second eye on the seedling.
- In the end, each bush is well watered with water.
- To garter the vines along the entire trench, a trellis is built. Wire strings are pulled at a distance of about 40 cm from each other.
Young plant must be hardened
Vine up to 3 years of age is tender, in severe frosts it can die - it must be hardened. The first 3 years after planting, the seedling is better to cover, like any other grape. Long vines should be laid on boards and sprinkled with snow.
Subsequent winters continue to warm, layers are made thinner. Do this at a later date. If there were bushes frozen from frost, the thickness of the shelter needs to be adjusted. After 5-6 years, the vine grows stronger, it becomes not necessary to cover it for the winter.
Proper pruning is half the success in viticulture. For 3 years, the bushes do not need to be touched. In the 4th year, they grow greatly, forming dense thickets. As a result, the bunches lack sunlight, they become very small. All resources go not in clusters, but in vines.
In spring, 3-4 shoots appear on the seedling, one of them is selected, the rest are cut. From this shoot a long and powerful vine is formed.
After budding, the branches are broken. Remove:
- sterile shoots that grow at the base of the vine;
- shoots growing from one eye (leave the most powerful);
- branches that grow weakly or hard.
All fruitless branches should not be removed: they accumulate a supply of food for the entire vine.
In June, they pinch the shoots so that the main supply of the bush goes to the formation of clusters.
Sprouts are cut on fruit-bearing branches, counting 5 leaves from the second bunch. It will not be superfluous to pinch the very top vine, so that it does not stretch up.
Dry garter is carried out in April. The overgrown branches are laid out on trellises to direct the growth of the vine. A “green garter” is made several times during the period from spring to autumn.
Also inspect the vines and break off the leaves that cover the bunches. Thinning leaves provides better aeration and light brushes.
In server regions of Russia, it is customary to thin out crops. This is done in mid-August. The smallest clusters are removed from the vine, 2 largest clusters are left on the vine. So they manage to ripen.
Marquette grapes do not need frequent watering. It is regularly performed during the period from budding to flowering and after the leaves fall.
Phosphoric and nitrogenous water-soluble fertilizers are suitable for feeding bushes. They must be liquid. The bushes need additional feeding during the period of ovary clusters and their ripening. To speed up the process, the vines are sprayed with ash infusion.
Disease and Pest Treatment
If “rusty” spots, white powdery coating appear on the leaves, the bushes are immediately treated with antifungal agents. After treatment, all affected leaves are collected and immediately burned.
The best cure for disease is prevention. At the initial stage of the growing season, the foliage is treated with a solution of copper sulfate. From aphids, spraying with a soapy solution helps well.
The variety was bred through 8 stages of crossing, so it has a rich taste. It makes a delicious dessert and semi-sweet wine.
The wines from the Marquette grape are strong. To create a lighter drink, winemakers mix varieties.
Marquette grapes have seeds with a bitter taste, so for wine it is pressed gently so as not to damage them. Otherwise, the drink will be bitter.
The Marquette grape variety gives the wine notes of plum, chocolate, spices, cherries and blackberries. There is a subtle aroma of tobacco and skin.
Everyone living in regions with a cold and temperate climate should take a closer look at this type of seedlings: it is easy to care for, the crop manages to ripen even in the conditions of the North of Russia.