Characteristics of the Manchu Quail
Manchurian quail is one of the most famous bird representatives. Together with the Japanese breed, he received the greatest distribution in the territory of our country. These birds are extremely popular due to their high performance, unpretentiousness and speed of adaptation to any conditions. Birds have a beautiful golden color, which makes them attractive for breeding for decorative purposes.
Quail Manchurian breed differ in average meat and egg indicators, therefore, do not belong to either one or another industrial type. For the most part, representatives of this breed are grown on private farms and very rarely bred on a professional scale. Among their advantages, unpretentiousness and high resistance to various diseases are very often distinguished.
Manchurian quail is often used for breeding new species. When this representative is crossed with a poultry of a meat group, its production indicators significantly increase. In addition to the versatility in these birds, their attractive appearance is appreciated. Manchu golden quails are often bred for a purely aesthetic purpose.
Manchu quail is distinguished by its color. It was not for nothing that they called him golden. In the plumage of birds, the feathers of several shades of brown and yellow smoothly turning into each other are very interestingly combined. The tips of the feathers are gray.
The similarity between the Manchu quail and the Japanese quail is immediately evident in the photo. Manchus are distinguished by an unusual mask on their heads. The male is distinguished by a darker plumage than the female, her belly and chest are more colorful.
Description of the Manchu Golden Quail:
- paws and beak several tones lighter than plumage;
- black beads of eyes are strongly visible on the head;
- the body is lean, the wings are rather short;
- a small head is set on a short smoothly expanding neck.
Manchurian golden quail is classified as universal breed. They can not be attributed to any of the industrial groups due to the ambiguity of indicators. For example, they give about 220 testicles per year, while the weight of the product is 16 g. The mass index exceeds the indicators of other breeds, but does not reach the egg group in terms of the quantity of the product.
The Manchu quails gain weight very quickly. Their mass reaches 150 g, and under very good conditions - even 300. The carcasses are very meaty. The meat has a great taste and nutrition. For the French variety of this breed, with enhanced nutrition, the characteristic weight of the male is 300 g, and the laying hen is about 400. To achieve such indicators, more careful care is required.
The versatility of the breed lies in the fact that birds can be grown for meat or to obtain high-quality dietary eggs. The content of the golden bird for different purposes will be slightly different. If the goal is to obtain fattened carcasses, heterosexual individuals are kept in the same enclosure. To obtain food eggs, females are kept apart from males and fed with mixtures for laying hens.
As for the maintenance, this breed can be successfully bred even by beginner poultry farmers. Even with all the unpretentiousness and high immunity, some care rules should still be followed. Manchu quails are kept in cages. Density per 1 square. m will vary, depending on the weight of the birds:
- 150-200 g - from 60 to 80 birds;
- 300 g - from 40 to 60 birds.
The height of the cage should exceed the growth of birds. The best option is a plywood cage with a lattice front wall. This design helps protect birds from drafts and closes the view, which greatly reduces the likelihood of stress. In addition to high-quality houses, it is necessary to create comfortable conditions in the house itself:
- simple ventilation system;
- optimal temperature conditions 20-25 ° C;
- humidity regulator.
It is better to mesh the floor in the cage and install a bottom pan to collect bird waste products. This design of the cell will allow more efficient monitoring of room hygiene. The litter collection tray is set at a slight angle so that it can be cleaned freely. The ideal material for the pallet is a galvanized metal sheet.
Feeding troughs and drinking bowls are attached to the front wall of the cage: this will save feed and protect water from pollution. Daylight hours should be at least 17 hours. Birds are especially sensitive to a lack of light in the winter, so you will have to install small lamps in the cages.
How and what to feed
The key to good health and high performance is balanced feed and clean water. The basis of nutrition should be various crops. You can use ready-made compound feeds or prepare the mix yourself. The composition of the grain mixture must include:
- crushed corn;
In the summer, the diet must necessarily include greens. In the cold season, you can germinate crops in greenhouses and introduce them into the diet in green. Also in the diet should be root vegetables, cabbage. All these products in grated form are very much to the taste of the birds.
As for water, it should be at room temperature. Water should be changed every two days, without forgetting to thoroughly wash the drinkers. To prevent infectious diseases, chicks are given only boiled water. Separate boxes with crushed shell rock, sand and chalk should be in the cells. Shell water is needed for an optimal level of calcium, and sand or ash is necessary so that the birds can induce a marafet, thus getting rid of parasites. In small quantities, animal proteins in the form of cottage cheese, meat or fish mince must be introduced into the diet. Normally, such products give 15 g per day. Feed the birds 3-4 times a day, equally distributing the daily allowance.
Effectively increasing livestock is another challenge facing beginner poultry farmers. The Manchu quail reaches puberty at the age of 2 to 8 months, therefore, parental individuals are chosen among this age category. Too young or old birds have lower fertility rates.
Close crossbreeding must be avoided. For complete confidence, it is better to purchase one of the individuals from another breeder. Sex determination of a bird is carried out by clicking on the cloaca. In the male, the cloacal opening is larger and foam is released from it.
To get high-quality offspring, 3-4 females selected for the tribe are placed together with the male in one cage. More than 4 females should not be put in a cage with one male, as he will not be able to impregnate them all in a qualitative manner. After mating, eggs can be stored for no more than a week at a temperature of 12 ° C. During storage, they must be turned over regularly. Before laying in the incubator, a thorough rejection of the incubation material is carried out. The following items are subject to rejection:
- the egg is too saturated or, conversely, too light;
- calcareous incubation material;
- eggs with a thinned shell.
Lay the testicles with blunt ends up. It is very important to observe the optimum temperature and humidity during the whole process. Hatching trays are turned over every 4 hours. A couple of days before hatching, the trays stop turning over.
How to distinguish a male adult
In addition to determining sex by the color of plumage, there is another option, more accurate. In Manchu golden quails, males can be distinguished by the appearance of cloaca and the caudal gland. In a male, the cesspool is colored pink. The podhovostovy gland borders on the cesspool and is located between the anus and tail. With light pressure, a foamy transparent white liquid is released on it.
In females, the caudal gland is absent. If the sex of a quail is determined by its appearance at two months of age, but the sub-caudal gland is not developed, such an individual is not taken for breeding, because the testes are underdeveloped. In this case, the bird is rejected for meat.
The correctness of the content in the initial stages of life is the key to good immunity in the future. In the first days after the birth of the chicks need constant heating. Before the chicks reach the age of 7 days, it is necessary to maintain the air temperature in the cell at 36 ° C. After this period, the temperature is gradually reduced by 3-4 ° per week.
Compound feed for broiler chickens is perfect for feeding. In the early days, feeding begins with finely crushed, hard-boiled eggs and cottage cheese. Then gradually begin to introduce feed. In the early days, chickens are given only boiled water, with a small addition of potassium permanganate. Already on the fourth day, babies can be transferred to clean water without manganese.
The benefits of breeding this species
The breed of Manchurian golden quail is perfect for breeding in order to generate income and quality food. The content of these representatives can be mastered even by a novice poultry breeder. This breed is quite popular. And this is not at all surprising, because even though the birds do not belong to any of the industrial groups, they are in great demand among buyers.
Golden Manchu quail after slaughter has a very good presentation. Unlike other breeds, after plucking on the skin, hemp from feathers is not visible and there is no blackness on the abdomen. Poultry meat has a light attractive shade. Breeding birds for meat, it is not necessary to contain heterosexual individuals separately. In the case when the breed is raised for the purpose of obtaining egg products, the females are kept separately.
An undoubted plus is the precocity of the breed. The females begin to scam already at the age of two months and maintain a high egg production for up to 8 months, after which the indicators begin to decrease slightly. If you decide to start your mini-business with the breeding of this breed, then your expenses will be covered for six months, and the birds will bring a steady income in the future.
Many breeders prefer this breed precisely because of its precocity. Birds begin to lay their eggs early and gain weight actively, which allows them to start selling products as quickly as possible. On the video you can see how the birds of this breed behave and listen to the stories of experienced breeders about their contents. Now you know everything about the content of the beautiful Manchu quail and can do it right.