Characteristics of Habanero Pepper
Habanero pepper is one of the most popular among chili peppers. Another name is Chinese capsicum. Easy cultivated variety. Mostly grows in a tropical climate, but it can be grown in our climatic conditions. Used in cooking and medicine.
Characteristics of Habanero Pepper
According to the Scoville scale, the severity of a burning plant varies from 100 thousand to 475 thousand units. Thanks to this, Habanero pepper is used in Mexican cuisine as a seasoning.
The juice contains substances that help with pain. They also accelerate hair growth.
Types of Habanero pepper:
- Habanero White. It has a white color and is the least popular due to demanding care. The shape of the fruit resembles chewing sweets, which is why Habanero is called "candy chili." Has a very high severity.
- Habanero Fataly. It has a pronounced peach and lemon smell. The fruits have an orange or chocolate color. According to the Scoville scale, the severity is from 125 thousand to 325 thousand units.
- Habanero Tigerpaw. Resistant to roundworms or nematodes. Acuity - from 265 to 368 thousand units. When ripe, the fruits turn bright orange.
- Habanero Red Caribian. Has a red color of the crop. Most commonly used in Mexican cuisine. He is very burning. The severity is 300-475 thousand units;
- Habanero Red Savina. The fruits of this pepper are very juicy and fleshy. On the Scoville scale, acuity reaches up to 400 thousand units;
- Habanero chocolate. The color is chocolate. Smoke and floral aroma. Color can range from light brown to rich chocolate. The sharpness reaches 425 thousand units. Grows slower than anyone. It coexists best in the tropics and grows to 120 cm. The stem is branched, leaves are ovoid in shape.
Habanero pepper variety has a high yield. For a year, one bush gives a yield of up to 1 kg. When grown in tropical climates, it can be a perennial plant and produce crops all year round. In a temperate climate, it is an annual plant.
The first fruits can be harvested after 90-100 days after planting. But before that, check them for ripeness.
Appearance of fruits
The fruits of a burning Chinese capsicum resemble a heart shape. They have a glossy wax surface. Unripe fruits have a green color. During ripening, they gradually acquire color according to their appearance.
Description of the fruit:
- weight from 30 to 50 g;
- diameter about 2.5 cm;
- length - from 2 to 6 cm.
- floral citrus aroma.
The chocolate look has a more spherical shape and in its dimensions exceeds other types. It reaches 4 cm in diameter and 5 cm in length.
Healthy and tasty pepper
- minerals (iron, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium);
- vitamins (B, B4, B9, C, K, A);
The main chemical substance is capsaicin. With pain in the body, it blocks the nerve cells responsible for sending pain impulses.
Due to the acute taste in raw form is not used. Fruits are used for preservation or in dried form. When cooking dishes with this vegetable, peel the seeds and pulp.
Habanero pepper is a thermophilic plant. When creating favorable conditions for growing, you can grow a vegetable at home.
First you need to soak the seeds for several days. To do this, they are placed in several times folded cheesecloth or between cotton wipes, which are moistened abundantly. When the seeds begin to germinate, they can be planted in the soil.
It is better to use a small container - a pot or container. Plant seeds to a depth of 0.5 cm. Ensure constant watering and the required temperature regime (20-25 ° C). After the first leaves appear, you can plant the seedlings in separate pots.
It is recommended that before planting in the soil, the plant is carried out in a pot on the street, each time increasing the time. This will harden and the bush will be more prepared for a climate change.
Grow bad on the street
Like any plant, chili requires care. If you follow the following simple rules, then the capsicum will please you with a good harvest:
- During flowering, some flowers must be cut. This is necessary to obtain large fruits.
- For feeding, it is better to use compost or mineral fertilizers. If the plant lacks vitamins, the leaves on the inside will turn purple.
- Watering should be moderate. Between watering the soil should dry. If the cultivation occurs at home, then this procedure must be carried out 2 times a day.
- To prevent aphids and ticks, they are treated with a solution of laundry soap. In the early stages, solutions that contain fungicides can be used.
- If cultivation takes place at home, then pots with bushes are best placed on windows that face south.
- If there is not enough lighting and heat, then for young plants you can install lamps.
To give shape, as well as remove old inflorescences, spring pruning is performed. For bushes that grew in a greenhouse or garden, it is better to carry out autumn pruning.
Pollination of plants that are planted in open ground occurs due to insects. At home, you can use a soft brush.
Harvest is necessary with gloves. The fruits are bitter and after them it’s hard to wash your hands.
Diseases and Pests
Improper care, insects or fungal diseases can harm the plant. Excessive watering threatens the appearance of a fungal infection with a black leg. Insufficient watering and dry soil contribute to withering of the ovaries and the appearance of aphids and spider mites.
An infusion of wood ash or insecticides will help get rid of the spider mite. It is better to apply organic origin. They will remove the tick, but will not harm the plant itself.
The most common disease is gray rot. It is formed due to damage to the leaves or trunk. To avoid this, you should carefully and carefully collect the crop, remove damaged leaves and petioles immediately.
Viral diseases (tobacco smoke virus and cucumber virus 1) are carried by aphids. Damaged bushes should be removed. To prevent the appearance of aphids, it is necessary to monitor the condition of the soil. Check it for the presence of ants, which are the main carriers of aphids.
If the roots are damaged by nematodes or annular worms, the roots should be lowered into water (temperature 50-55 ° C). This water temperature will help get rid of pests, but will not damage the root system.
Capsicum Chinese can be grown in houses on the windowsill and in the summer cottage. The main thing is to observe the temperature and light conditions when growing. It is necessary to regularly check the condition of the plant in order to prevent diseases in time. The fruits are used as a hot spice. Peppers can also be added to sauces.