Characteristics of Garnacha grape varieties
In Spain, only high-yielding crops with good taste are selected for wine. These include the Garnacha grape variety. It makes pink, mature wines. Its pulp contains little sugar, so it is suitable for children and people who adhere to a diet.
Characteristics of Garnacha grape varieties
The Garnacha grape variety is often blended with other varieties to produce the famous fortified Spanish and French sweet wines. In France he is called Grenache. The level of alcohol is high. Combines several varieties.
It is a thermophilic species, tolerates drought and heat well. Garnach has a long growing season; some berries do not ripen and fall.
300 g contains only 210 ccl. In juices, this indicator rises several times due to glucose and fructose. Berries also contain a large amount of vitamins A, B, K, PP and minerals.
Even in a dry climate, the bush gives a yield of 20 centner / ha. It is resistant to wind. The root system grows deep into the soil and takes root from the first weeks of planting. The frost resistance of the crop is slightly lower than that of other representatives of grapevine. At temperatures below -18 ° C, the plant begins to hurt and may die.
- Grenache Noir - for making red wine;
- Grenache Gris - for making a pink drink;
- Grenache Blanc - White grape gives the wine a straw color.
All varieties require appropriate care and a lot of light. Only a warm climate without strong, cold winds is chosen for landing.
Description of the bush and fruits
The bushes of the culture are vigorous, with strong branches and a stable trunk. Leaves are small, three-lobed, dark green in color.
On the one hand, the Grenache leaf is shiny, on the other - rough, with a slight cobweb pubescence.
A strong root allows you to not water the plant for a long time. The vine begins to bloom early. The clusters are of medium size, conical shape. Its berries are also not large with a dense skin, purple-pink or green. The pulp of the fruit is juicy, contains a lot of sugar. In Spain, berries are valued for their sweet, full-bodied taste.
To grow Grenache grapes you need to consider several points:
- The right choice of place and region is dry summer, warm winter. Lots of sunshine.
- Plant in non-acidic, unsalted soil.
- Planting dates - autumn or spring.
- Planted at a distance of 1.5 m from each other.
- With increased humidity, the plant begins to hurt and rot.
Before planting in the open ground, the plant is fertilized, a hole is dug up about 1 m deep. At the bottom of the hole place a drainage of sand, sawdust and fertilizer. After planting, the bush is watered abundantly.
The plant needs to be well looked after
- The first watering is carried out in the spring using warm water. If it is necessary to suspend the growing season, watering is done with cold water. On 1 bush 200-300 l. Grape growers are advised to do drainage for irrigation - several holes with tubes 7 cm in diameter per bush. The drainage method of irrigation is deeper.
- Loosening and mulching of the soil. So that the soil around the bush is not taken by the crust, it is mulched and loosened. For mulch choose wood sawdust, dried grass, straw. Dig the soil no deeper than 15 cm.
- Pruning. Forms the crown of the vine. Cut the vine in the fall, when the movement of juices stops. And in the spring they are doing sanitary cleaning. Trimming only dry shoots. The lower, diseased, cracked branches and new shoots are removed.
- Shelter for the winter. In the early years, seedlings are sheltered in the winter. To do this, use a light cloth or plastic film. They take shelter in late spring when the frost stops.
Together with the seedling in the hole place a support to help the trunk strengthen. You should constantly get rid of weeds around the plant. Pruning is done with pruning shears or clippers (before this, you need to disinfect). Cutting points are treated with potassium permanganate or paint.
For culture, fertilizers are applied to the soil to stimulate growth or prevention, or sprayed with bushes with drugs. Fertilizers for grapes should contain nutrients:
Fertilize in the spring. The first top dressing is done after removing the shelter. To do this, mix 20 l of water, 40 g of superphosphate, 20 g of ammonium nitrate and 10 g of potassium salt. The solution is enough for 2 bushes. After harvesting, chemical spraying is carried out:
These are complex fertilizers that help restore the balance of nutrients in the juice of the vine. For feeding, litter and sugar-glycerin solution are often still chosen. For it, 100 g of sugar or 60 g of glycerin are mixed. The solution strengthens the outer shell of the foliage.
Diseases and Pests
- powdery mildew;
Diseases affect the leaves, shoots and berries of a plant. Against mildew, they are treated with the following drugs: Ditan, Acrobat MC, Orius, Mancozeb or Tridex. To fight powdery mildew choose Bnomil, Strobi or Impact. They are bred with water, according to the instructions.
In addition to diseases, insects damage the plant:
- Spider mite. The nutrients are drained from the trunk, which leads to the necrosis of the branches.
- Aphid. Small insects eating foliage and fruits.
- Acacia false shield. A dark yellow insect that forms a body on the trunks of a bulge. She makes the bush weak and it shrinks.
- Leafloader. Their caterpillar is eating leaves, fruits. After which the foliage falls, and the fruits are deformed.
Chemicals for the fight against leafworm and false shields:
- Fufanon Nova;
Aphids will disappear after treatment with a solution of ash. To do this, 300 g of ash are boiled for 30 minutes in 10 l of water, cooled and 40 g of soap are added. Against a spider mite, acaricides are used - neoron and omait. The plants are treated with preparations 2 times every 10 days until the complete destruction of insects.
Garnacha grape variety is a fruit with a thick peel, sweet flesh. Often exposed to powdery mildew diseases and mildew, if the amount of moisture in the soil is more than necessary. For cultivation choose warm regions with a dry climate. Refers to white and black grape varieties.