Causes of stomatitis in rabbits and methods of its treatment
Among diseases that affect pets, stomatitis in rabbits is not the least popular. Experienced farmers note that the disease "wet muzzle" has a very negative effect on furry, as ill individuals become living carriers. This disease is difficult not to notice: the rabbit increases salivation and the oral cavity becomes inflamed. The pet becomes inactive, eats almost nothing.
Stomatitis in rabbits
Infectious stomatitis in rabbits is not a rare phenomenon. The reason is a virus that develops in various fluids of the animal body. Also, the disease is inherited, and if the female has been ill with this disease, rabbit stomatitis will be congenital. Nevertheless, the meat of such animals can be eaten and the skin after recovery is suitable for sale. So how does stomatitis appear in rabbits and how to treat it?
Causes and symptoms of stomatitis in rabbits
Stomatitis is an infectious disease caused by a filtering virus. Characteristic symptoms include inflammation of the oral cavity and severe salivation. The virus lives in the fluids that the animal body produces: in saliva, blood, or urine. Stomatitis most often affects young rabbits or pregnant rabbits. The immunity of rabbits during these periods of life is weakened, therefore, during the round-up, rodents are especially sensitive to the disease. The most favorable time for stomatitis is autumn and spring. Symptoms of the disease are bright and difficult to miss even an inexperienced rabbit breeder:
- inflammation of the oral cavity;
- mucous plaque on the tongue;
- wet muzzle, coat sticks together not only on the head, but also on the chest;
- the mouth is covered with white films;
- the animal moves a little and sleeps a lot;
- poor eating and weight loss;
- stomach upset;
- chewing movements.
One of the most common causes of infectious stomatitis on a farm is an infected rabbit.
It is worth noting that in most cases, stomatitis is not a serious disease and rarely results in death. A pet is able to get sick without proper treatment, however, this makes him a lifelong carrier of infection. It is extremely difficult to determine an inactive virus in the blood of an animal; usually, pet owners will learn about infection through experience.
For decorative breeds, stomatitis does not pose a particular threat: in good conditions, the infection will not manifest itself and it is not terrible for humans. In large farms, on the contrary, infectious stomatitis is an extremely unpleasant disease. The infected individual must be immediately isolated, otherwise the filtering virus will spread without exception. If the rabbit was bought on the market or brought for mating from the outside, it is better to inquire about the presence of a similar virus in the blood of the animal.
Most often, infection occurs due to contact of the skin of a healthy rabbit with the patient’s mucosa. Eared people like to lick and bite each other, this is what can cause the spread of the disease. You can also accidentally bring stomatitis with poor-quality feed infected with other animals or insects.
If the treatment for stomatitis lasts too long and the rabbit does not pass the inflammation, you can try changing the feed suppliers. Before this, enclosures, cages and feeders should be thoroughly disinfected. Other illnesses, such as a cold or an allergy, can be the cause of protracted stomatitis. If your pet has a runny nose or watery eyes, you should consult a veterinarian.
Infectious stomatitis: forms of the disease and consequences
The disease has 2 forms: mild and severe. If the necessary treatment is not provided on time, then in a mild form the disease lasts 10-12 days from the onset of inflammation of the internal oral cavity or 10 after the appearance of profuse salivation.
A severe form of infectious stomatitis is fatal: the animal dies on the 5th day. The form of the disease depends on the activity of the virus and timely intervention. If you do not treat the pet, then the chance that the disease will go into a serious form rises sharply. Also, the disease can be aggravated by non-compliance with sanitary standards for the content of rodents. Among the violations can be identified such:
- excessive crowding of rabbits;
- sudden changes in temperature and humidity;
- unbalanced diet;
- dirty cage.
If improperly maintained, there is a risk of losing rabbits.
Treatment in the early stages of the disease and the prevention of stomatitis will help to avoid serious losses.
Drug treatment of stomatitis in rodents
With this disease, the most important thing is to act promptly.
First of all, a sick individual should be immediately removed from healthy individuals and sanitized aviaries, implements and feeders should be disinfected. Next, it is required to begin treatment, not only with sick rabbits, but also with those who could be in contact with infected ones. Obviously, it is easier to treat a mild form than to reap the consequences of a severe one. There are many available treatments for rabbit infectious stomatitis:
- treatment of inflamed mucous with a solution of potassium permanganate;
- instillation of penicillin once a day;
- streptocide ;.
- lubrication of the oral cavity with cotton wool soaked in a solution of copper sulfate.
If the rabbit has not lost too much weight, then in a week it will return to normal. It is important to remember that the dosage here is designed for an adult, for rabbits you need to use completely different proportions. Among folk methods, one can distinguish washing the mouth and affected areas with various decoctions on herbs. For this, fees that have an anti-inflammatory effect on the body are suitable:
- Oak bark;
Herbs are thoroughly washed and poured with boiling water. Using a cotton swab, you need to treat the affected mucous membrane of the animal. As a prophylaxis, the rabbit's oral cavity, which is the carrier of the virus, should be treated once a month. Some rabbit breeders recommend using propolis ointments made at home. This component is a natural antiseptic and can help in the fight against inflammation and the spread of infection throughout the body.
In specialized clinics, injections are used as a treatment, but this method is considered radical and is used only in the last stages of the disease, when the life of a rodent is at stake. Penicillin is injected into a sick animal intramuscularly, sometimes ointments based on the same penicillin or other anti-inflammatory elements are used.
Infectious stomatitis as a cause of rabbit weight loss
It is worth remembering that the young victim is the main victim of the “wet face”. Due to the affected oral cavity, it is painful for rabbits to chew food, which often causes severe depletion.
At the time of the ailment, it is extremely important to provide a fluffy pet with a soft diet, remove all hard cereals from the menu. In critical cases, the rabbit can be fed with liquid feed using a syringe with a special nozzle. It is important not to miss this point: outwardly it will seem that the eared is absolutely healthy. Liquid cereals, decoctions of herbs and special mixtures will help to balance nutrition. It is impossible to delay to assist the rabbit: a long absence of solid feed in the diet will adversely affect the animal’s teeth.
Prevention against stomatitis in rabbits
When the symptoms of the disease were found in one of the individuals, it is required to protect healthy rabbits from contact with it. At the same time, it is required to monitor the quality of the feed. If there is a lot of debris or insects in crops, it is better to change the supplier. The rabbit diet should contain the necessary complexes of vitamins and minerals. Weakened immunity is the first reason for the spread of the disease.
It is necessary to comply with sanitary standards for keeping pets, timely clean aviaries and cages. Twice a year, the animal’s house needs complete disinfection.
As a preventative measure, the rabbit's oral cavity is wiped with a decoction of anti-inflammatory collection. You can also add iodine or potassium permanganate to the pet’s water (not more than 5 drops per 10 l). Prevention should be strengthened in early spring and autumn, since this is the most favorable time for the spread of stomatitis virus.
Infectious stomatitis in farm rabbits is an unpleasant viral disease that affects mainly newborn rabbits and pregnant females. The disease has vivid symptoms and is difficult to overlook. To prevent this disease, it is necessary to increase the amount of vitamins and minerals in the diet of animals with low immunity. The disease has two forms and they depend on the activity of the virus in the blood. In the treatment of “wet muzzle” not only medications, but also alternative methods help. If infectious stomatitis comes in conjunction with another disease, it is important to consult a veterinarian in what order should be treated.
The pet during the disease is often wet from excessive salivation, so the risk of colds is increased. As a prophylaxis, it is recommended to disinfect a pet's home and decoctions of antiseptic herbal preparations. The most important thing in the fight against this disease is timely treatment. Stomatitis is not terrible in a mild form and does not affect the qualities of a rabbit as a producer of meat or wool. Infected individuals are allowed to mate with the same virus carriers. It is important to remember that the offspring of such rabbits is especially vulnerable to stomatitis at first. The disease will bypass those pets that receive enough vitamins and are kept in good conditions.