Bress Gallic hens
Bred by French breeders Bress Gallic breed of chickens has all the necessary qualities - fast growth, good egg production, tender and tasty meat. In Russia, French crosses of meat and egg direction began to breed recently - 5-7 years ago.
Bress Gallic hens
Brief information about the breed
- Type of productivity : meat and egg.
- Rooster weight : 3.5-5 kg.
- Chicken weight : about 2 kg.
- Start of ovipositor : at 5 or 6 months.
- Egg production : quite good - from 180 to 240 eggs per year.
- Features : does not tolerate cold, high survival rate of chicks and rapid mass gain.
- Egg Size : The average weight is 84-86 g.
- Are they suitable for a beginner : yes
The description of Bress Gallic hens includes several distinctive qualities:
- single scallop of red or scarlet color;
- earlobes are white with a bluish tint;
- the skin on the legs is gray-blue;
- the frame is elegant, the body is medium in size and length;
- the back is wide with a raised shoulder girdle;
- the chest is large, the abdomen is well developed;
- the head is round, small;
- neck of medium length;
- wings are small, fit snugly to the body;
- earrings of medium size, scarlet;
- eyes are dark brown;
- the skin is white and thin;
- in purebred chickens, the plumage is snow-white, dense, without any additional shades.
On the basis of this breed, other varieties with black, gray and even blue feather cover were bred.
The rejection of young animals unsuitable for further breeding is carried out according to the following criteria:
- light shade of the eyes;
- the lobes are covered with red spots;
- the crest is not a standard shape and lies on one side in adults;
- tail too high;
- narrow body and small body.
Birds have a calm and peaceful character. There are no fights and conflicts among roosters; they relate well to young offspring and other individuals. Therefore, they can be kept in a common chicken coop.
The description includes high performance - for a month, chickens are able to gain weight from 600 g. With good nutrition, by 4 months they gain 2 kg and are ready for slaughter. Males weigh more - by 8 months their weight reaches 3.5-5 kg.
Egg production is good - from 180 to 240 eggs per year. The eggs are large, with a thick, white shell, the average weight is 84-86 g.
The first laying at hens begins at the 16th week of life. The better the nutrition and conditions, the higher the productivity of the hens.
You can buy a breed on farms
You can buy this breed in private farms, the average price for an incubation egg is 150 rubles, and a five-day-old young growth has grown from 200 rubles. for one individual.
Advantages and disadvantages
The description includes several qualities important for breeders and consumers:
- excellent and tasteful meat, the French consider it delicious;
- early maturation of layers;
- breeding universality - chickens are kept both for obtaining meat and eggs in large quantities;
- Compared with broilers, it has a stronger immunity against diseases, the survival rate of both young animals (about 95%) and adult individuals (up to 90%).
Of the shortcomings, there are two points:
- it will not work to bring out a purebred tribe by natural breeding, therefore the incubation method and the material of the breeding farms are used;
- if you adhere to all the rules of keeping this breed, the breeder is waiting for high costs for feed.
Females have a good instinct for hatching, but to obtain a guaranteed result, it is better to give preference to an artificial method of reproduction.
Layers give the first eggs in 5-6 months, puberty in males occurs closer to a year. For full life, good egg production, distribution is carried out based on one rooster 12 hens.
If you decide to breed these chickens in a natural way, you will need to conduct a careful selection of laying hens of two years of age with high rates of productivity. Any pathologies, defects on the body, the presence of diseases, parasites are the very first signs for rejection.
For the substrate, eggs of medium size are taken, with a flat and smooth surface, without cracks. All too blunt or pointed specimens are laid aside, since of them there is a high probability of the appearance of underdeveloped chicks.
Under one chicken, you can put from 13 to 17 eggs. They should be fresh - not older than 5-6 days. The hatching period is 20-21 days.
For laying in an incubator, the material requirements are the same as for natural reproduction. Initially, you need to set the temperature at around 40 ° C, then lower it every week by 1 ° C, in the last seven days - by 2 ° C.
Before hatching, the eggs are turned over several times daily, so they warm evenly, which eliminates the risk of pathologies in the chicks.
After 20-21 days, the young offspring are placed in a small wooden or cardboard box covered with a rag or sawdust.
A lamp is installed at a distance of 0.5 m from above for heating and proper lighting. The optimal length of daylight hours is 21-22 hours, the temperature on the first day is 31-32 ° C, every day it is reduced by 2-3 ° C. The comfortable mode for weekly chickens is 19-20 ° C.
After 10 days of keeping the house, the chicks can be taken out to fresh air on sunny days. Walking on the street contributes to good growth and development.
Feeding and drinking
Birds need clean drinking water
Gress breed Bress chicks are characterized by rapid growth and weight gain, but for this they need to be fed often and well:
- on the first day you can offer a finely chopped, boiled egg;
- on the second day add chopped green onions;
- starting from the 5th day of life, they are fed with low-fat cottage cheese, small cereals, grated, boiled carrots, egg shells, ground to powder, are mixed in the feed;
- at 1.5 weeks they need food with a high protein content - it helps to build muscle mass (give sour milk, vegetable, fruit, meat and bone and fish flour mixes);
- at the age of 1.5 months they are transferred to the general diet of adults.
In the first days of life, they are soldered with a glucose solution - 100 g of the substance is diluted in 2 liters of water. Then they are watered with plain water at room temperature. It is changed every day.
Adult bird keeping
These large-sized birds love a lot of space, it is desirable to provide them with a good place for walking, good nutrition and exceptionally good conditions.
Bress Gallic bird is not adapted to severe climatic conditions, therefore, when kept in the northern and middle latitudes, it will be necessary to carefully insulate the chicken coop and provide a good microclimate inside it.
- The room is cleaned of debris, whitewash all surfaces, dried.
- For insulation, the floor is clogged with boards or tin. It will protect chickens from hypothermia and prevent the penetration of all rodents.
- Tanks for feed and water are installed at the bottom. They should be enough for everyone, otherwise the birds will start to fight for food, showing aggression and cannibalism towards each other.
- A basin with sand, clay or ash is placed in a place convenient for chickens. Dry baths are necessary to protect against various feather and skin parasites.
- In addition, roosts are arranged at a height of 40-50 cm, in secluded places they put boxes filled with straw or hay (nests) at the rate of one nest for five layers.
The optimal amount of area in the chicken coop per individual is at least 1 m². With greater crowding, the birds begin to hurt, behave aggressively, which leads to fights, a slowdown in growth and a decrease in productivity.
Per head is required on less than 10 m² of area. The place for walking is fenced with a grid, slate or a fence. They do not cover from above, since birds of this breed have poor flying abilities and it is not worth fearing that they will fly away.
Pasture for chickens is sown with cereals or clover. In the corners are placed feeders with gravel, cockleshell and chalk. Drinkers are also put - preferably nipple or grooved, because in them, the water stays clean and fresh longer.
The basis of feeding this breed is compound feed - a mixture of different crops and nutrients.
You can buy it in a specialized store or cook it yourself by mixing wheat (barley), corn, meat and bone (fish) flour, sunflower meal and minerals in a ratio of 4: 3: 1: 1: 1. The consumption per individual per day is 120 g.
Meals during free walking are more diverse - in addition to the main food, birds are given fresh herbs, grass, mash of grated vegetables, fruits, root crops.
In the winter season, grass meal, chopped pieces of cabbage, beets serve as a replacement for succulent feed. They give boiled mashed potatoes, but in moderation. They also offer shells, chalk, and mix the powdered eggshell into the feed.
To supplement the lack of vitamins and minerals, premixes, sprouted wheat, barley, rye or oats are added to the food.
Shedding and egg laying break
In spring, hens molt
Usually this process begins in spring in laying hens - almost the entire feather cover is lost. During molting, the hens of the Bress Gallic breed cease to trot.
The breeder should ensure enhanced and proper feeding, keeping in a separate place from other individuals and a clean, fresh drink.
Reduce the amount of vitamins A, E and fish oil during feather changes. Chickens are given daily corn, wheat, and other foods fortified with fiber and protein.
Shedding lasts from 2.5 to 3.5 months, after which the bird returns to normal and restores its productivity.
These birds can get sick and die if they are kept in a cold room, there are drafts, sudden changes in temperature and crowding.
Often a cold develops. Symptoms include mucus secretion from the beak, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, lethargy, increased thirst and refusal to feed. Treat sick individuals with Tetracycline or Biomycin.
Chickens that are affected by coccidiosis must be disposed of, because this disease cannot be cured. The chicken coop is then disinfected and ventilated.
Of the parasites, bugs, lice, fluff and spoilers, which appear at high humidity, crowding of birds, can annoy. Treatment of feather cover with malathion will help get rid of them. Spray 3 times with an interval of a week.
Herd replacement planned
This procedure is done once every two years. By the age of two years, laying hens reduce productivity and are replaced by juveniles.
Replacing chickens raised for meat is planned taking into account personal preferences. They can be slaughtered, starting from 5 months, of males no earlier than at the age of eight months.
Herd rejuvenation is carried out at least once every 5 years. At the same time, the strongest, healthy and most beautiful individuals are selected both from males and females.
Many breeders recommend this breed not only to beginners, but also to other experienced poultry farmers:
- Bress Nalli chickens are universal - they quickly gain weight, give good and tasty meat, and at the same time have good egg production, so they are grown not only for personal but also for production purposes;
- middle and northern farmers report good productivity, despite poor adaptability to such conditions;
- some refuse to raise them, because they need large pastures and a spacious henhouse for maintenance, not every breeder can provide this.