One of the most delicious and healthy basidiomycetes is the boletus mushroom. With its qualitative characteristics, it is equal to the kings of the forest - porcini mushrooms. Belongs to the Boletov family, the genus Obabok. In our forests, mushrooms are represented by several species. All of them are edible, but differ in taste.
The fungus forms mycorrhiza with birch, entering into symbiosis with it and actively spreads its hyphae. The relationship of symbiont and fungal spores is interesting. The body is not a parasite and, growing near the tree, helps it protect itself from foreign bacteria, improves the absorption of nutrients from the soil by the root system. On the territory of Russia, wild boletus was one of the main components of the diet in the autumn in the locals.
The mushroom hat is opaque, has a hemispherical shape, is painted in a grayish or pale chocolate color. As you grow older, it begins to look like a pillow. Its diameter can reach 18 cm. With increasing humidity, sticky mucus appears on the surface of the cap.
Boletus looks like mushroom. The main differences are the shape of the legs, the colors of the hats. A long, dense and fibrous leg, expanding in the lower part, reaches 9-12 cm in height. The color of the legs is off-white. In the lower part, its surface is covered with small dark scales.
The tubular hymenophore. It is painted white, as it grows older it becomes gray, watery-friable. The pulp is white and has a greenish tint. On cut, when exposed to air, it becomes slightly gray. Exudes a pleasant mushroom aroma.
In young specimens, the fruiting body is dense and delicate in taste, in old ones it is loose and contains a large amount of moisture. Boletus grows singly or in groups. The collection season begins in May-June, which depends on the region, and ends in late autumn. Spring boletus appears very first.
There are more than 40 species of boletus. Most popular among mushroom pickers:
- common boletus;
- marsh boletus or white;
- pink boletus or oxidizing;
- gray boletus or hornbeam;
- black boletus, which is popularly called the black-headed;
- multi-colored birch.
On the territory of Russia, the most famous are the common boletus and hornbeam. In addition to them, there are 7 more varieties. All species of brown boletus are edible mushrooms.
Dangerous to human health, false boletus is distinguished by the pink color of the hymenophore in old representatives. The young false boletus has a white hymenophore. Young specimens are recognized by pressing on the spore-bearing layer: if it turns pink, then the mushroom is poisonous.
Common birch bark is an edible cap-legged mushroom growing in birch plantations, deciduous, mixed forests. The hat is domed, diameter is 15 cm. The cap boletus has a hat color from dark chocolate to grayish, which depends on the region in which he lives. The surface of the cap is fine or bare.
The tubular hymenophore separates effortlessly from the bottom of the cap. A young white hymenophore, becomes grayish as it grows older. The spores are olive brown. The fruit body is white, does not change color at all or acquires a slightly pink tint on the cut.
Marsh birch birch or white birch, growing in small groups or alone in a humid area, is located on the outskirts of marshes, lakes. Appears in September after heavy rain. Fruits until the end of autumn. It forms mycorrhiza with the root system of birch.
Only young mushrooms are suitable for food.
The cap of the marshland in diameter reaches 12 cm. The shape is convex, then pillow-shaped. The surface is dry, white or off-white. The old swamp is greenish gray. Such instances are no longer collected.
In young mushrooms, the hymenophore is tubular, gray-green. The pulp is watery, white, loose structure, does not change color on the cut. Exudes mushroom aroma. The leg is tall, thin, slightly widened below. It is painted white, covered with small scales.
The rosemary is pinkish (oxidizing)
The pink boletus (edible mushroom) forms mycorrhiza with tree and shrub birch trees. The pinkish item is collected in the northern forests, where it prefers to grow on the slopes of groves, in high mountains, on waterlogged soils. Appears in the forests in the fall after heavy rains. It features a small hat painted in a yellow-brown color. The tubular hymenophore later turns gray.
The white leg is shorter when compared with other fungi belonging to this genus. Its surface is covered with a large number of gray scales. In some specimens, the legs are bent to the side from where more light falls. The pulp is white, dense, on the cut it turns red.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
For this species of brown boletus, a peculiar “marble” color of the hat is characteristic: brown areas are interspersed with lighter and even almost white in color. It is she who distinguishes the n. Pinkish from ordinary in appearance. These mushrooms are also known in the northern part of Western Europe.
The mushroom belongs to the 2nd category of edibility.
Gray boletus is called hornbeam. A young specimen growing in the same locality as oxidized, differs in the wrinkled structure of a hemispherical hat, its diameter is 6-15 cm. Its color palette is diverse. The surface of the cap can be painted in the following colors:
- the black;
- olive brown.
Leg 6-18 cm high initially strongly swollen, later becomes cylindrical, narrowed down. When pressed, it acquires a darker tone. Gray boletus mushrooms form mycorrhiza (fungus root) with birches, oaks, beeches and nuts. Harvesting begins in the month of June, when the mountain ash blooms.
These mushrooms, growing on wet and marshy soils, were called "black" for the dark color of the hat. Wormy brown boletuses of this species are very rare, which distinguishes them from the rest of the genus.
The first mushrooms appear in the summer. Peak fruiting is observed in September. If the summer was arid, they would not appear.
Description of black boletus mushroom:
- hat 16 cm in diameter, matte black or chocolate brown;
- the surface of the fruit body is dry, velvety to the touch, after rain and with increased humidity - sticky, mucous;
- the pulp has a firm structure, at the cut the pores of the hymenophore turn blue;
- the foot is dirty white, thickened, about 12 cm high.
Obabok color (multi-colored)
Obobs are ideal for diet
The main symbiont for the formation of mycorrhiza is birch, the secondary - beech, aspen. Multi-colored birch tree is painted in gray-white color, with pronounced strokes on the surface of the hat. In diameter, it reaches 12 cm.
The pulp is white, on the cut after a while it turns pink. The smell is barely perceptible. Tubular hymenophore finely porous. The spores are light brown.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
If we compare the common boletus and p. Multicolored, then the second has a more compact size, which is expressed in the smaller diameter of the cap, height and thickness of the legs. As the fungus grows, the hat from closed closes to a slightly convex shape. The taste of the pulp is pleasant, although weak. Gimenophore tubules are finely porous, light gray in young specimens, light brown in adults and dark spots may appear on them. When pressed, the tubes change color - turn pink. The length of the stalk of a multicolored one depends on the height of the moss in which they grow.
Fruits from June to October, found mainly in swamps and mossy forest areas.
High nutritional value and low calorie make these mushrooms indispensable ingredients in the diet of people who want to lose weight or gain muscle mass. The fibrous pulp after heat treatment resembles the taste of meat. The chemical composition of boletus is a protein that includes 8 essential amino acids that the human body is not able to synthesize on its own.
The mushroom pulp includes 35% protein, about 14% glucose, 4% fat, 25% fiber. Among the beneficial properties of the fungus, the presence in the composition of a large number of trace elements and vitamins is noted:
- nicotinic acid (vitamin PP, vitamin B5, niacin);
- vitamins of group B, C, D, E, A;
This species is the record holder for manganese content. Phosphoric (orthophosphoric) acid present in the composition has a positive effect on the functioning of the musculoskeletal system by participating in the construction of enzymatic cells. White mushroom (boletus) and boletus are considered competitive specimens. They are actively used in folk and traditional medicine for a long time.
As such, there are no contraindications to the use of birch, but it is forbidden with individual intolerance. It is undesirable to cook such food for children under 8 years of age and people suffering from stomach ulcers. Fiber contained in mushrooms is digested for too long, which can cause the stomach to “stop” in babies.
You should not collect boletus in the forests located near factories, landfills, in public places and near the highway. They accumulate toxins in themselves. An overripe mushroom is also dangerous.
The mushroom can be used for medicinal purposes.
Boletus is classified as a delicate species of mushrooms, so most people only know about its use in cooking. In fact, this representative of basidiomycetes can be a good substitute for drugs. The fiber and protein content makes it possible to prepare dietary supplements for athletes based on it.
Boletus will be useful in agriculture. After burning mushroom bodies, ash is formed, which contains calcium, phosphorus, zinc and nitrogen, which ensures a stable diet and does not allow the soil to lose its quality. Mushroom products are suitable for preparing compound feeds for cattle, pigs and poultry.
Before use, the product must undergo processing. Previously, it should be cleaned of adhering dirt, remove the skin, trim the bottom of the legs. If products need to be dried, do not wash them. It is cleaned from dirt, and then just wipe the hat with a damp cloth.
So that the product prepared for delicacies does not turn blue, after cleaning it is soaked in water with a small amount of lemon juice (juice from 0.5 fruit per 1 liter of water). It does not need to be soaked for several hours like a breast, 20-30 minutes are enough. Cooking technology involves double boiling. For the first time you need to boil the product only 5 minutes after boiling water. Then it is transferred to another pan, put bay leaf, a whole onion, a pair of allspice peas, boiled for 20-30 minutes until fully cooked.
Boiled raw materials are used for pickling, cooking soups, mushroom caviar, salads and other dishes. For the winter, you can prepare dried mushrooms or freeze fresh or boiled products in batches. Storage requires compliance with the rules:
- dried fruits with signs of mold must be disposed of;
- frozen products are used immediately and are not frozen repeatedly;
- if the brine becomes cloudy in a jar, the product is disposed of.
In folk medicine, it is used in tinctures and ointments to eliminate pain in osteochondrosis or gout. Affected areas should be treated 3-4 times a day. Tinctures are taken 2-3 times a day to increase immunity and sexual activity. The individual components of basidiomycete in combination with alcohol give an analgesic effect, eliminate nervousness (i.e., have some sedative effect).
The exceptional properties of this mushroom allow it to be used in the manufacture of drugs for weight loss. In cosmetology, an extract from it is used as an anti-aging component.
Active cultivation of basidiomycetes is underway. At home, it will be easy to grow a clearing of delicious mushrooms in a personal plot. You can plant spores collected on your own in the country, or buy a ready-made mycelium. Bazidiomycet will bear fruit well in the area where there are birches from 2 to 4 years.
If you want to collect spores with your own hands, pick up a few old fruiting bodies. At a distance of 50 cm from the trunk, beds 21-31 cm deep are made. Crushed stone is laid on the bottom, then coarse sand and sod mixture. All this must be covered with a layer of quality compost.
If the hymenophore collected from the mushrooms is solid, it is better to soak it together with gelatin and dolomite flour in a ratio of 1: 0.2: 0.3. The mixture is placed in the wells, covered with compost, on top they should be mulched with a sod mixture. Stably high soil moisture is maintained within 70%. To successfully grow the product on the site, special attention should be paid to harvesting. The main thing is to ensure that the mycelium producing shoots is not destroyed, otherwise it will be the last crop.
A simpler option is to buy a kit for a beginner, which includes a special basket with “seed” material, a substrate and detailed instructions. Find them easily in any specialized store.
Pereberezik is a delicious edible species of mushrooms, including more than 40 subspecies. The name is due to the occurrence of symbiosis with birch. All representatives are rich in nutrients and minerals. Today, planting forest basidiomycetes in summer cottages is actively practiced.