Black Tsimlyansky grapes
Tsimlyansky black grapes are a well-known variety; delicious wines are made from it. Proper cultivation of bushes and care for them allow you to get a quality crop at the end of the season.
Black Tsimlyansky grapes
The grape variety Tsimlyansky black became known thanks to red wines with an original taste. The buds begin to bloom from the end of April. Pollination occurs in early summer, the grape harvest ripens by the end of August, and harvesting begins in October.
The growing season of the variety is 133-135 days. Frost resistance is low - bushes need to be covered. Tsimlyansky black grapes are characterized by medium growth power, good drought tolerance. However, black grapes are susceptible to disease. It is often found in the Kuban and Don.
Vigorous bushes are covered with dark green five-lobed foliage. In early summer, female and male flowers bloom on them, which favorably affects pollination.
Tsimlyansky black grapes have a cylindrical shape and a loose cluster structure. Its weight reaches 140 g.
Description of berries:
- round, sometimes oval,
- dark blue,
- weight - up to 1.3 g;
- sugar content - 27%.
The fruits are rich in astringency and balanced taste, a spicy vanilla flavor is felt. The pulp is juicy and fleshy, melts in the mouth.
The process of growing Tsimlyansk grapes should be approached responsibly. Observe a number of conditions:
- planted Tsimlyansk variety in calm and well-lit places;
- choose loamy and sandy loamy soil;
- branches are prone to strong growth, so they provide additional support;
- pruning is carried out on 5 buds, shrubs make the right shape;
- for winter time, grapes provide shelter from a special material and sprinkle with a small snow layer.
Tsimlyansk grape variety was originally grown in the southern regions of the country, today it is spread everywhere. With proper care of the bushes, you can get a good harvest.
Tsimlyansky black grapes are planted according to the scheme:
- land in sandy soil, in trenches 80 cm deep;
- if planting is swampy, make high beds;
- humus is placed on the bottom of the ditch, it serves as an additional source of nutrition for the vine; it receives moisture from the soil;
- the distance between the wine varieties is maintained at the level of 80 cm, between the dining rooms - 1.5 m;
- in the early years of cultivation, bushes are sheltered from frost by a special material.
Plant health depends on the quality of care
If you do not take care of the grapes, it will discard the kidneys, damage to the root system is possible.
The root system of grapes goes deep into the soil. To moisturize it, different types of irrigation are used.
- Water recharge irrigation. They are carried out in spring and autumn, they nourish the soil with moisture, and keep it deep in the ground. In autumn, the soil is watered well: this way the roots will be protected from freezing. Water-charging irrigation is carried out along trenches and drainage holes.
- Planting irrigation. They consist in the use of hot water to warm the soil before planting. Pour 10-20 liters of water into 1 pit. After absorption, the seedling is planted, it is half buried, another 10 liters of warm water is poured on top, bait is added to it. When planting in autumn, water is used without heating; fertilizers are not needed.
- Watering during periods of growth. Their implementation involves the flow of water to the grapes through the holes. At a distance of 30 cm from the bush, holes 20-25 cm deep are made, they are watered with water, the earth is poured on top and loosened. In the first year, the bushes are watered once a week, in the evenings. They require 5-20 liters of water each. After 30 days, watered every 14 days. In August, the final watering is carried out, after maturation, the flow of water is stopped.
Tsimlyansk variety grows in well-lit areas, this should be considered when planting bushes.
Depending on the purpose of cultivation, select the temperature of the water during irrigation. Cold inhibits the opening of the kidneys, thereby preserving them from the last frost. When using warm water for irrigation, the vine grows and develops.
Tsimlyansk grapes are fed with organic and mineral fertilizers. As organics, compost, manure, litter, peat are used.
Mineral fertilizers are:
- simple, which consist of one element (potassium salt, ammonium nitrate);
- complex - from several (nitrophos).
Ready-made fertilizers are also used for top dressing: “Garden mix”, “Mortar”, “Rost-1”, “Florovit”.
Black grapes are easily susceptible to disease - you should carefully monitor the bushes.
The following diseases are distinguished:
- Oidium. On the berries and leaves there is a gray coating. The disease is common in hot weather, leading to the death of the vineyard.
- Alternariosis. White spots appear on the berries, brown and silver on other parts of the bush.
- Mildew. Yellow spots appear on the foliage, a gray coating.
- Anthracnose. The spots on the bush are dark brown in color, they soon dry out.
- Cercosporosis. Olive-colored spots are observed on the leaves and berries.
- Escorioz. Black spots spread over the aboveground areas of the bushes.
- Apoplexy (eska). White spots appear on the foliage below, the bushes die.
- Gray rot. Sore areas are covered with a touch of gray.
- White rot. A white coating appears on the berries.
- Black rot. On berries, foliage spots of violet color are observed.
- Armillarosis. Foliage turns yellow, the roots become brown.
- Verticillosis. Yellowness of foliage, death of shoots is observed.
Grapes are easily affected by disease.
The following bacterial diseases are distinguished:
- bacterial cancer;
- bacterial necrosis.
The following types of ailments are not subject to treatment:
- chlorosis - color loss;
- short stature - short stature;
- nipple mosaic;
- marbling leaves;
- necrosis of leaf veins.
The implementation of supportive measures helps in the fight against diseases, while it is important to implement and ensure proper care. To do this, use spraying with chemical agents. In case of detection of diseases, fungicides are used:
- In the fight against oidium, white, black rot help “Topaz”, “Strobi”, “Tiovit”, colloidal sulfur, etc.
- Mildew, white, black rot is treated with Bordeaux liquid, Ridomil Gold, Strobi and others.
- Alternariosis, eskorioz helps to defeat the Bordeaux solution.
- Cercosporosis, anthracnose - Bordeaux mixture.
- The drug "Arsenite" helps against apoplexy.
- Gray rot is treated with the use of the preparations “Chorus”, “Antracol”, “Switch”.
- Armillarose is defeated by fungicides containing copper.
- Verticellosis is treated by spraying with the fundazole.
Bacterial diseases are difficult to cure; viral diseases are not treated.
Tsimlyansk grapes will bring a rich harvest, if you create optimal conditions for growth and development. Proper care of grape bushes, preventive measures against diseases help to grow healthy vineyards and get delicious berries from them.