Black-motley breed of cows
The relatively young black-motley breed of cows has found its fans and has established itself in domestic animal husbandry.
Black-motley breed of cows
About black and motley cows
The Russian black-motley breed of cows appeared after the 30s of the last century as a result of domestic breeding work in which cattle from Russian regions were crossed with representatives of the Dutch cattle. Breeding of a new cattle breed in Russia took place in stages:
- a variety of crossbreeds were originally obtained through the use of Dutch burenki and bulls;
- subsequently, specimens obtained from crossing were selected according to the required qualitative characteristics, improved their productivity and fixed at the genetic level the best qualities of the newly bred black-and-white cattle.
Initially, black-and-white cows were susceptible to various diseases, not differing in high and stable immunity. They had a fragile physique, but high rates of milkiness. As a result of many years of breeding work by domestic scientists, animals have increased the body's resistance to infections, health has been strengthened, and the quality characteristics of meat products produced have improved.
The USSR Ministry of Agriculture recognized the black-and-white breed of cows as an independent branch in animal husbandry, approving the standard in 1959.
Rapid growth in the popularity of cows occurred in the 60s of the last century, when the breed was improved, and the farms of Volgograd, Ryazan, Novgorod, Tver and other Russian regions began to start black-and-white cattle in their livestock farms. Today, the distribution area of animals covers most of the Russian territory, starting in the west to the Pacific Ocean and ending with the northern borders in the direction of Kazakhstan. A milk cow found its fans, occupying a niche in the ranks with red-motley representatives, and outside our country. Its productivity is known in other states.
Exterior of black motley animals.
A general description of the appearance of black-motley cattle covers the entire breed as a whole. The most characteristic feature of representatives of domestic cattle, which is difficult to miss in the photo, of course, is the color: spots of white color are randomly scattered on a black background covering the entire body of the animal.
In addition, the characteristics of these animals include a description of the main features characteristic of the breed:
- a long head with an elongated muzzle and gray-colored horns crowned with dark tips,
- non-muscular folding neck,
- medium chest width, up to 0.7-0.75 m deep,
- flat back with a straight lower back and a wide sacrum,
- evenly spaced strong limbs,
- volumetric abdominal cavity with a cup-shaped udder, in which the shares are uneven, and the nipples are located at a fairly close distance from each other.
A powerful, proportionally folded cow at the withers grows to 1.3-1.35 m. Among the motley cattle of this domestic breed, 3 fundamental types stand out.
- A view that has developed in the central region of Russia, which is distinguished by a larger body structure. The weight of these representatives reaches 0.55-0.65 tons in motley heifers and 0.9-1.0 tons in motley bulls. This type applies not only to dairy, but also produces meat.
- The Ural type is characterized by the dryness of the hull, which gives the animals lightness and grace in appearance.
- Siberian black animals are smaller in size than representatives from the center and are not distinguished by the density of their constitution. The average weight of this type does not usually exceed half a ton.
In addition to the above types, in different farms there are:
- The Holstein cow, which has survived as an ancestor involved in crossbreeding for breeding black parsley, and has spread throughout North America thanks to its good milk production.
- Yaroslavl pied poultry, bred in the Yaroslavl region by selecting bright representatives for crossbreeding and distinguished today by its angularity and underdeveloped muscular constitution. However, now it is famous for good indicators of fat content of milk dispensed.
Every farmer who has such a suit of cows on the farm knows that it relates more to the dairy direction than to the meat one. But getting meat when breeding this cattle is also possible.
Newborn calves weigh from 37 to 42 kg and, as lovers of a lot of food, are able to gain up to 0.6-0.8 kg daily. With intensive fattening, bulls and heifers add 1 kg per day.
Relating to precocious breeds of cattle, a black-motley cow quickly gains weight and produces high-quality meat.
By reaching the age of 1.5 years, young bulls record weight indicators of up to 0.4 tons; the largest representatives by this time are approaching half a ton figures.
The matured individual carries up to 1 ton of body weight on its shoulders. Slaughter yield from such animals is from 50% or more.
Black-and-white cows living in various regions of Russia produce different amounts of dairy products. The size of the milk yield also depends on the conditions of the animals and their diet.
Breeding cattle in the central Russian regions often record a high rate of milk yield: up to 8 thousand kg per year. At the same time, the fat content of products obtained from black-and-white cows is more than 3.5% with a protein component of 3-3.2%.
Under normal conditions, the content of cattle of black-motley breed provides stable productivity: - Average annual milk yield of high-quality milk of 3.0-3.5 thousand kg.
Burenki from Siberia are able to produce up to 6 thousand kg of milk per year with average fat content of 3.7-3.9% and protein about 3.2-3.3%.
In comparison with the residents of the center, the Burenka from the Ural region is slightly behind its close relatives, recording productivity lower: annual milk yield is up to 5.5 thousand kg, but their fat content often exceeds that of other types and varies about 4.0% with a protein of 3, 45-3.47%.
One of the positive aspects of the maintenance of black-and-white cattle is that in the summer period the animals go on independent feeding for natural pastures, without requiring additional costs for the feed from the owner. When winter comes for unpretentious cows, feeding is reduced to a sufficient amount of hay and juicy additives. Often, domestic breeders raise black and white cattle because of good profitability when they want to have a constant profit from the sale of dairy and meat products.
For breeding, representatives of cattle of black-motley breed have a number of advantages and advantages that make it easy to care for them:
- currently bred livestock is in good health and strong immunity,
- the motley cow easily adapts to new living conditions,
- cattle are of a moderately early-growing type, capable of gaining good weight, muscle mass in a short time, spending the average amount of feed and nutritional supplements on it,
- the black-and-white breed of cows gives high-performance productivity that is of good quality: lean meat is valued among consumers, milk has high quality characteristics of fat content and protein content.
In addition to the fact that this domestic breed has many advantages, the reviews of herders note some disadvantages that farmers would like to reduce by improving the quality of the breed, including:
- maximally bring the types of black-motley animals to each other,
- increase livestock sizes,
- improve milk performance and product quality.