Biological features and types of black breast
Among the species diversity of mushrooms, black lumps are most popular. This delicacy is found only in the forests of our country. Black mushroom grows in large groups, which facilitates its collection. It is valued for its delicate taste and aroma in pickling.
Biological features and types of black breast
Black breast belongs to the family of syroezhkovs. The people call this species differently: black, black hollow. The most common name is chernushka.
- The hat is outstretched, rounded, indented in the center, the edges slightly turned down. Depending on age, its diameter varies from 8 to 20 cm. Sometimes larger specimens are also found. Throughout growth and maturation, the black mushroom constantly changes color. The young specimen has an olive color, the adult is dark green with a black tint. Under the influence of high humidity, the hat becomes sticky, so leaflets, needles and soil particles gather on its surface.
- The leg is thick, in the form of a cylinder - about 4 cm in diameter and 8 cm in height. The surface is smooth, a couple of tones lighter than the color of the hat.
- The cream-colored plates darken when damaged.
- The pulp has a dense structure, with the slightest damage it breaks and releases white milky juice, which darkens over time.
Black breast is conditionally edible because its flesh has a bitter and pungent taste. To get rid of it, mushrooms are pre-processed.
The black lactum belongs to the family of russula
Black breasts, according to the description, grow mainly in the middle zone of our country. This mushroom is massively harvested in the forests of the Urals and Siberia. Chernushka lives among fir trees, pines, in a birch grove. Sometimes a black lump is found in the middle of the steppe, but subject to the presence of birches. Only with these trees does this species form mycorrhiza. An abundant crop of these mushrooms is found in places well-lit by the sun.
The dark mushroom has been growing for a long time: it is harvested starting from the second decade of July and ending in mid-October. The species bears fruit well in cool conditions. Peak growth and crop volumes are dependent on the weather. In hot summers and arid autumn, the mycelium practically does not develop, which means that black breasts do not appear at all.
It is difficult to find this species among fallen leaves, spruce needles and forest soil, especially for a beginner mushroom picker. The specific color of the hat and low leg allow him to deftly hide in the grass or fallen foliage.
If you managed to find at least one instance, the collection will be successful. Black mushrooms grow in groups.
Glades covered with moss are the favorite places for mushroom growth. Black mushrooms are also collected from old log cabins along forest paths.
The mushroom grows from one year to the same place.
The black mushroom has a lot of similar species, but, due to the unusual color and shape of the hat, it is difficult to confuse a real mushroom with a false one. Chernoshka has a distant resemblance to some varieties of rowing, however, in the latter the hat is not funnel-shaped. There are some similarities with sows, only, unlike black breasts, they do not secrete milky juice.
In appearance, a black lump is similar to a camphor mushroom. He has the same color and body structure. Distinguish it from chernushka will be slightly pinkish flesh and a specific smell with a break. Mushroom pickers do not advise collecting this conditionally edible mushroom, because its pulp contains a large amount of muscarinic substances.
The papillary false breast is dangerous and can cause severe intoxication. The composition of the poisonous pulp includes many muscarinic substances.
Description of this view:
- dark brown hat with a purple tint;
- diameter - from 4 to 10 cm;
- the surface of the hat is covered with light scales resembling papillae; therefore, this species is called papillary;
- the hat is slightly curved to the bottom along the edge; in the center it contains a flat tubercle.
There is an easy way to distinguish a false view from an edible one. Press on the surface of the cap. As a result, it is seen how, in the papillary lump, this place first becomes brown, then ocher. Mostly the species grows in the forest, both coniferous and deciduous.
Due to the unusual color and shape of the hat, it is difficult to confuse a real mushroom with a false one
How to process and cook
Black spruce chestnut is used for making pickles and pickling. It is thoroughly washed to completely clear of the forest pad. The next step is soaking in cold water. To make the mushrooms tasty, they should be soaked for 3 days, changing the water daily, otherwise getting rid of the milky juice, which gives the flesh bitterness, will not work.
Other mushroom pickers believe that soaking with cold water does not give such a result as the hot method. Boil the mushrooms and in the process of cooking, pour out the old water and pour new.
After pretreatment, the forest product is salted or pickled. It turns out delicious and becomes a pleasant olive color.
Salting recipe under oppression
Mushrooms under oppression prepared in this way are stewed, fried and pickled.
Before starting to cook the mushrooms under oppression, they are pretreated: they are cleaned and soaked. The film is removed from the caps, then the legs are cut off and washed under running water.
Washed mushrooms are poured with ice water and left to soak for 3 days with a daily change of water.
To make the breasts elastic, they are boiled for 15 minutes. in 2 calls, each time changing the water.
While the mushrooms are boiled, prepare a pickle for pickling. For 2 kg of mushrooms you will need:
- table salt - 60 g;
- black pepper peas - 15 pcs.;
- allspice - 8 pcs.;
- cloves - 3 buds;
- dill - 5 umbrellas;
- water - 1 l;
- Refined vegetable oil - ½.
Pour water into the pan, add all the dry ingredients, bring to a boil. In a boiling marinade, put spices, pour in oil, mix and after a couple of minutes remove from heat.
Boiled mushrooms are laid at the bottom of a capacious container, pour in hot brine. A small wide plate is placed on top, a press is placed on top: a full three-liter bottle.
Salting is transferred to a cool room. After 4 days, the pickled mushrooms under oppression will be ready for tasting.
Useful and harmful properties
Thanks to excellent taste, the black breast got an honorable place of the third category. The pulp is 50% protein, while this type is a low-calorie product: 100 g of pulp accounts for only 23 kcal.
Nigella mushrooms are heavy for the digestive system. To use such a product is in small portions. In case of overeating, eating disorders are possible. If the pre-treatment technology is violated, the degree of intoxication increases. Nausea develops, rarely - vomiting.
There is no supporting evidence that the black breast represents dangerous properties and harm to the body.
Due to its good taste, high yield and suitability for pickling and pickling, black loaf has become popular among mushroom pickers. This protein product is useful for the body and is low-calorie, so it can be safely included in your diet.