Beautiful and unusual mushrooms of the world
The most unusual organisms on Earth are fungi. They do not belong to either flora or fauna. These are special forest organisms that have not been fully studied and attract the attention of scientists from all countries. There are unusual and beautiful mushrooms that differ from other species.
Beautiful and unusual mushrooms of the world
The kingdom of mushrooms is huge and varied. According to some scientific sources, it has about 100-250 000, but according to others - about 1.5 million species. Only a few are edible.
Each region is characterized by certain types of these unusual and beautiful organisms. There are those that are completely unlike the usual species for us.
They differ in such basic factors:
- place of growth;
- degree of edibility;
- the aroma.
In Africa, butterflies and russules are considered unusual, Africans bypass them and do not eat, considering them strange and poisonous, and for the first time they get to know them only after they enter Russia. And for the central part of Russia and the entire CIS, oiler is considered the most common and edible species.
In the steppe regions, ceps are considered rare and unusual, and in the Carpathians they grow at every step and are widely used for cooking.
Description of species
Some mushrooms surprise with the beauty and unusual shapes. These types include the following:
- blue lactarius;
- Panellus astringent;
- orange tremor;
- coral blackberry;
- purple clavaria;
- sea anemone;
- trametes, etc.
Beautiful names do not always speak of edibility, rather, on the unusual shape, exotic appearance and that it is better not to touch it with your hands.
It grows in North and Central America and East Asia. It grows both in conifers and in deciduous forest zones.
In old specimens the color is blue-gray, in young ones it is dark blue. The fluid that stands out on the slice is bright blue.
Edible consider it the inhabitants of China, Mexico and Guatemala. They are happy to fry and cook it. Mushroom caps that reach a diameter of 15-20 cm are considered especially tasty.
Panellus is a beautiful mushroom that grows in the countries of Asia, on the Australian continent and at the other end of the world - in the north of America. It is rare in Russia, but it is found in the Caucasus, northern Russia, Siberia and the Primorsky Territory. Refers to inedible.
It belongs to the luminous bioluminescent species. His pulp is thin. Color ocher, astringent. The aroma is a little pungent. The shape of the cap in young mushrooms resembles a tree bud. When the fruit body ripens, it becomes ovoid or resembles a cracked fan. The edges become wavy and ribbed. Grows in whole colonies, using rotting stumps, logs or trunks of deciduous trees for their living.
Caster is one of the most amazing mushrooms.
Her home is dead trees. The fruit body grows to 8-9 cm and resembles a bright orange jelly on a sticky surface.
Humidity provokes the appearance of a kind of mucus that appears between small cracks, in dry weather it turns into a wrinkled, unsightly mass. But the next rain causes its rapid growth. Aborigines consider this species useful and edible, but fresh and tasteless. In Russia, the mushroom is not popular among mushroom pickers.
It forms mycorrhiza in the mixed and tropical forests of Australia, Africa, Asia and North America.
The mushroom grows to a height of 10 cm
This species is widespread in Europe and North America. Its beautiful tube-shaped body has a lilac or violet hue, which becomes light ocher with age. It grows up to 10 cm up.
Thin graceful tubules branch and twist. This saprophyte breaks down and absorbs organic matter from the earth.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
About the methods of nutrition of clavaria, they say that it is:
- humic saprophyte (saprotroph);
- optional xylotroph;
- possibly mycorrhizal symbiotroph.
By the way. Xylotrophs are a specialized ecological group of mushrooms that live on wood. Xylotrophs can be obligate if wood is the only source of nutrients or optional (like purple clavaria) when wood is an additional source of nutrition. If xylotroph uses living wood - it is considered a parasite, if dead - saprophyte.
The fruit bodies of clavaria have legs - poorly expressed, hairy at their base. Usually they grow in rather dense bundles of about 20 pieces in one such cluster bundle.
There is currently no evidence of toxicity.
One of his relatives is a species of clavaria Zollinger, growing in Denmark, the UK and Ireland. Her fruit color is purple. This representative is not edible and is used to indicate soil in meadows.
The starfish is very beautiful and visible from afar. The bodies are located on dying trees that have fallen after a thunderstorm or hurricane. It got its name due to the fact that exoperidium is torn into 4 blades, which fall down and lift fruit bodies on legs.
Europeans and Americans consider it a rare and inedible species with a specific bitter taste.
In the last month of summer, mycelium grows, the upper aerial part appears. The base of the mushroom is convex. Together with the spherical gleb, the middle rises. As the spores mature, a hole opens at the top of the gleb through which spores are released into the environment.
A peculiar aroma attracts insects that fly right into an open hole in the center of the body.
This species is similar to anemones, but has an unpleasant odor. In shape, this organism resembles a star.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
On the territory of Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, there is a fungus sea anemone or starfish. Of course, he has nothing to do with marine life. The only thing that can unite them is similarity in appearance. The fungus is very interesting in its biology - at the beginning of the "life path" the fruit body resembles a grebe, but then the appearance changes radically. A completely new organism appears - in which the usual hat is divided into parts and really began to resemble the tentacles of the sea "flower" - anemone. At the same time, the mushroom emits a carrion smell, attracting flies that spread its spores on their legs.
Anemone prefers to grow on a pillow of leaves in dense forests or in grassy areas. Its surface is covered with sticky mucus. Touching it is very unpleasant, so people often just trample it.
It is very similar to the beautiful creations of nature - sea corals. The color is from yellow to purple or blood red.
These mushrooms settle on rotting wood and are xylotrophs. It is noted that the fruit bodies of blackberries often settle on wood after the tinder fungus or chaga.
Caught in old forests or in abandoned parks. Listed in the Red Book.
Klatrus Archer, or Cuttlefish and Devil's Fingers, grows in Tasmania. He came to Europe from France. The mushroom is a member of the Veselkovye family.
The view is inedible, but incredibly beautiful and awesome at the same time. The fruit body has the shape of an egg, which exploded, huge tentacles of squid fall out of it. Some people say that the clathrus resembles a fantastic flower, its diameter is 15 cm. It has no legs. The surface is porous with dark uneven spots.
The body has several layers that become visible if it is broken or cut. The aroma is strong and unpleasant. It attracts various insects that feed on decaying remains and thus the fungus spreads spores. This mode of distribution is called entomochoria.
Benefit and harm
All forest mushrooms have a lot of useful properties:
- trace elements;
- amino acids.
These substances are necessary to strengthen the human immune system.
In pharmaceuticals and medicine, some species are used to create drugs and treat diseases, such as:
- heart failure;
- urolithiasis disease;
- gout, etc.
Some species are considered sources of drugs that will allow in the near future to cure a number of diseases that are now deadly.
Eating edible species regularly helps lower cholesterol, activate memory, lower blood pressure and increase the protective function of the liver.
People suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract should consume dishes with the addition of forest organisms sparingly and after consulting with their doctor so as not to cause a relapse.
Children under 7 years old are better not to use them, because children's stomachs still do not secrete as many enzymes so that such heavy food can be quickly digested.
These unusual organisms remind of how diverse the world is, that it must be protected and treated with love. After all, the number of rare specimens in the world is decreasing every year, some species may disappear tomorrow.