Autumn Peony Transplantation - Secrets of a Successful Procedure
If you love peonies and want to make a peony garden, it is important to learn how to properly care for these flowers. Let's start creating your beautiful dream today. To begin, consider how to transplant peonies to a new place in the fall. If everything is done correctly, in the spring from one bush you will have 3-4, and blooming! Great, right?
Autumn Peony Transplantation - Secrets of a Successful Procedure
Why transplant peonies
Pion growers note the dislike of these flowers for transplants and recommend that they be carried out no earlier than 4-5 years after planting. And very neat.
You say that grassy peonies can not be transplanted for 20 years, and tree-like peony - in general 70? Yes, that's right, these rhizome flowers do fine without a transplant, but only if they are comfortable in their place:
- enough nutrition in the soil;
- neighbors do not obscure;
- the bush is well ventilated, dense;
- do not bother with groundwater.
To determine if a peony is good in its place, answer these questions:
- Does the flower bloom profusely and regularly?
- Inflorescences correspond to varietal size?
- Do all buds bloom? No falling down?
- Do the flowers last long?
- Are the leaves large, shiny, even saturated color?
- Are the stems strong?
- Growth at the same rate?
If you answered “no” to at least one question, it means that not everything is all right in the peony kingdom. Most likely, it's time to think about changing the place of residence of the plant.
Consider the main signs and causes of trouble.
Peony refers to not very moody colors. Two conditions that must be met strictly:
- Free circulation of air around the bushes;
- Sunlight all day. Only light penumbra at noon is permissible.
Therefore, peonies are not planted near large-sized plants, close to the walls of buildings.
This flower quickly grows green mass, its large leaves in the overgrown bush obscure each other. Eventually:
- Flowering becomes less plentiful, until the cessation.
- Leaves are fading.
- Not all buds open.
- The growth of the stems slows down, they bend.
- The bush becomes asymmetrical, loses decorativeness.
- There is a high risk of “catching” a fungal disease - it is the thickened plantings that the pathogenic microflora love so much!
These signs appear in flowers older than 7-10 years.
To prevent the deterioration of the quality of peonies from thickening and growth, you need to regularly separate the bushes and plant them. The procedure is carried out once every 6-8 years.
Long stay on one bed
Powerful peony bushes need a lot of nutrition.
As the plants grow, useful substances from the soil are consumed faster, their gardener replenishes the supply during feeding.
Peonies take useful trace elements from the soil
After 10-12 years, the soil will be depleted, especially in terms of trace elements, and the peony will switch to starvation mode:
- The leaves will lose their luster, begin to fade.
- The buds can form, but the bush already lacks the strength for their further development, so most of them are not disclosed.
Peonies have few pests, but there are enough diseases. Their pathogens accumulate in the soil, but they are safe for a strong plant. Over time, colonies of pathogens grow, and the immunity of the peony decreases.
And the inevitable comes - illness, loss of decorativeness and possible death of a peony. Transplantation is the only salvation.
It happens that the peony is all right, he is beautiful and happy, pleases with buds and carved healthy leaves, but ... It does not look at all in the current composition.
But in combination with roses (irises / asters / chrysanthemums) it will look more advantageous - and in this case the transplant is justified.
When is it better to transplant - in autumn or spring
It is important that after transferring to another place, the plants do not interrupt flowering. Peonies really do not like transplants, and in response they stop the formation of buds throughout the entire adaptation period.
The least traumatic will be division and transplantation during rest: in early spring or autumn.
If these operations are carried out in the spring, there will be no flowering exactly this year - the bush will begin to spend energy on planting and will not have time to grow stronger by the beginning of budding. There is one significant nuance: vegetative roots begin to grow at 3C, so when digging a bush they are in the active stage, and when they are in the air for more than 5 minutes they die. Spring transplantation of peonies is possible only by transshipment.
But in the fall, peony has enough time for everything. The coolness and rains contribute to the development of young roots, to the winter colds, the delenka will grow so strong that they will be ready to continue flowering next spring, i.e. Autumn transplants are better in every way.
For a transplant, you do not have to wait for autumn. This operation can be carried out after flowering and buds are over - already in August, when suction roots begin to form in the peony. They provide painless adaptation of the plant in a new place.
The main conditions:
- the air temperature during transplantation should not be higher than 20-22 ° C,
- sufficient moisture in the air and soil.
It is important to carry out the procedure 35-45 days before the onset of cold weather.
Depending on the time of the onset of constant frosts, the maximum possible regional terms of transplantation are also chosen:
- Ural, Siberia - mid-August;
- Midland, Moscow Region - August-early September;
- South, Crimea, Kuban - the end of September.
If it is not possible to carry out the transplant within the specified time, it is better to transfer it to the next year. Otherwise, the roots will not have time to form, the plant may not survive the winter or will be weakened and with a high degree of probability will fall ill.
According to the lunar calendar
The procedure is recommended for the growing moon
The lunar calendar prescribes to perform operations associated with the roots in the growing phase. It is during this period that the underground part of plants (roots, tubers, rhizomes) are at rest and are not so susceptible to stress during mechanical damage.
For 2019, these are the following dates:
- August: 2-14, 31;
- September: 1-13, 29-30;
- October: 1-13, 29-31.
How to transplant
To preserve the flowering of peonies after transplantation, it is important not only to choose the correct timing of the operation, but also to conduct it in the least traumatic way for the plant. At the same time, taking into account the characteristics of the flower and providing optimal conditions for adaptation.
Peony is a light-loving subtropical plant, so it has special requirements for the place of planting. It should be:
- Sunlit at least 8-10 hours, possibly with slight shading for 3-4 hours a day.
- Protected from the wind, but with free air circulation.
- Remote from large plants and buildings.
- Without a close groundwater approach.
- On a hill where water will not accumulate after rains and snow melt.
Peony is good at any time: its carved leaves are attractive, the beautiful shape of the bush. He will retain these advantages in case of a not quite appropriate landing place. However, it will not bloom in the shade and in the draft.
Peonies grow on any soil. But their beauty is most fully revealed on light loam or sandy sandstone with a Ph value ranging from 6.0 to 6.8. More acidic soils must be treated before planting with dolomite flour or ash.
The soil before is prepared in advance, at least 2-3 weeks in advance: from garden soil, sand, peat and humus in equal shares
- The soil is dug up on a bayonet of a shovel, carefully choosing weeds.
- Organics are introduced - rotted compost, leaf humus. The introduction of manure or bird droppings leads to the appearance of spots on the leaves and a decrease in the plant's immunity to fungal diseases.
- Dig holes 60X60 cm in size.
If you plan to plant several bushes, place them at a distance from each other:
- undersized varieties - not less than 70 cm;
- average height - up to 110 cm;
- tree-like - 150-180 cm.
In each hole, drainage is laid on the bottom - broken brick, expanded clay, pebbles. The "heavier" and wetter the soil, the higher this layer should be - up to 20 cm.
Then prepare the prepared soil and fertilizers:
- 200 g of double superphosphate;
- 1 tbsp iron vitriol (or bury 2 cans);
- 0.5 tbsp potassium sulfate.
The soil mixture in the pit is mixed, watered and left to shrink.
Peonies have a very vulnerable root system
The root system of the peony is very delicate, vulnerable, therefore, the transplant procedure must be performed with the least damage to the rhizome.
To do this, you need:
- Dig a bush in a circle at a distance of 40 cm from the stems;
- Insert the forks into the dug groove and loosen the bush so that it can be easily removed from the ground;
- Carefully free from adhering earth. Under no circumstances should you shake and beat on a hard surface! If it is necessary to divide the bush, then small roots can be washed under a gentle stream of water;
- Leave to dry for several hours;
- Remove all diseased, damaged and dry roots with a sharp knife;
- Shorten the shoots to 20 cm;
- Divide the rhizome (if this operation is needed) so that 4 buds remain on each dividend;
- Dip the roots of the plant in a fungicide solution, then soak in a root-forming solution;
- Sprinkle the places of slices with crushed activated charcoal, potassium permanganate or garden var.
In a pit with a ready-mixed soil mixture, a dividend is placed so that the root neck is at a depth of 5-7 cm. They fill it with the rest of the soil, compact it and water it abundantly - at least 5 liters of water for each bush.
Note! Young buds must be covered with earth, otherwise they will dry out and die. But too deep penetration will lead to decay and cessation of flowering. The optimal soil layer above the kidneys is 3-5 cm.
Why there may be no flowering after transplantation
The plants divided in the fall take root well, but begin to bloom only for 2-3 years. If the delenki did not bloom for 3 years, then the planting material is divided up very finely. You need to wait until the bush picks up the required volume.
Correctly transplanted peonies without division can bloom the very next year. If this does not happen, then there may be several reasons:
- too acidic soil;
- planting depth of more than 7 cm or less than 5 cm (with deep - the kidneys will rot, with shallow - they will freeze);
- there is an excess of nitrogen fertilizers or organic matter in the soil. The bush spends energy on increasing green mass, not on flowering;
- lack of moisture during the laying of flower buds;
- leaves and stems are cut immediately after flowering. They did not participate in the process of photosynthesis and did not transfer the necessary energy to the roots;
- peony is damaged by diseases or pests.
Care after transplantation should be gentle:
- watering only after the top layer has dried (excess moisture can cause decay of an unrooted plant);
- regular surface loosening of the soil to improve root aeration;
- spraying with adaptogens;
- stop feeding.
We will consider each of these operations in more detail.
The peculiarity of the procedure is that at the base of the bush there are no suction roots, they are located around the perimeter. In order for all the moisture to benefit the plant, they dig a shallow groove around the periphery of the root circle. And this is where the water is poured! When watering under the base of the bush, there is a risk of rotting of the stems.
Peony is a “water loaf”; for normal development and flowering, it needs abundant but rare watering. The volume of each is 2-3 buckets per bush.
Watering is especially important for a transplanted flower at the end of August, when accessory roots are actively developing.
But with all the love of water, a peony is better to undercook than to pour. In the case of constantly “wet heels”, the bush will begin to rot and lose immunity to fungal diseases. Therefore, moistening the rhizome through the irrigation holes is the safest.
Young plants do not need fertilizer
Transplanted peonies do not feed the first 2-3 years. The plant has enough nutrition that is laid in the landing pit.
At this time, foliar feeding 1-2 times per season with growth regulators and humates is permissible.
Starting from the 3rd year, top dressing is carried out according to the standard scheme - 4 times a year, at the rate of 30-35 g of fertilizer (matchbox with a “slide”) per bush:
- In spring, during the period of active formation of leaves and stems, it is a complete complex fat with a predominance of nitrogen. The most effective top dressing is on melt snow. Granular fertilizers are scattered around the bush. Together with melt water, they quickly get to the awakening roots.
- During the budding period - a complex fat with a predominance of potassium.
- During flowering - potassium-phosphorus mixtures, with an increased proportion of potassium.
- After flowering - phosphorus-potash, with an excess of phosphorus.
It is important to completely eliminate humates and nitrogen after July 15-20. And, of course, all top dressing is carried out only after watering!
In addition to the basic procedures - watering and top dressing - it is important to regularly conduct aeration of the soil.
Such actions saturate the soil with air and contribute to the active development of suction roots.
However, loosening should be carried out to a depth of not more than 5 cm at the base of the bush so as not to damage the root system. At the periphery of the root circle, a depth of 15 cm is permissible.
It is especially important to loosen after watering and rains.
As soon as the peony grows stronger after transplanting, it is possible to grow a bush - this contributes to the formation of additional roots.
Peony does not need to be formed - its natural form is perfect! If the symmetry of the bush is broken, then the place for the plant was chosen erroneously.
Pruning blooming peony is needed to increase the flowering period or to allow the formation of larger flowers.
Remember the rule:
- if you want to see large flowers, then remove the side buds when they become the size of a pea;
- if you prefer to admire the lush flowering bush, then leave all the buds, but the flowers will not be very large.
Faded flowers should be removed immediately, cutting to the first well-developed leaf with a stump of no more than 2-3 mm.
This is especially important in rainy weather, as falling petals, falling on the leaves, can cause gray rot. Yes, and such a bush looks untidy.
The entire aboveground part of the peonies must be cut off, but this should be done only when constant cold weather sets in. Until this time, the leaves, participating in photosynthesis, supply the roots with nutrients. Early pruning will greatly weaken the plant.
After pruning, you need to carefully examine the base of the shoots - whether the growth buds are bare. In order to protect them, peonies are bred with fertile soil to a height of 7-10 cm. Peonies tolerate cold well. Usually, only plants that are transplanted shortly before the onset of frost need shelter.
In this case, they are covered with peat or leaf humus with a thickness of up to 15-20 cm. Peonies most often die not from frost, but from heating. Therefore, straw or leaves should not be used as a shelter.
Adult rooted peonies do not shelter for the winter.
Peonies can be transplanted from 4-5 years of age.
An operation is necessary if:
- the bush has grown;
- the flowers are smaller, they become smaller;
- plant growth has stopped.
Peony is transplanted in the fall, 35-45 days (in extreme cases - a month) before the onset of constant cold weather.
In the process of transplanting, the bush can be divided. Each dividend should have at least 3-4 growth buds.
The root neck during planting is buried by 5-7 cm.
The transplanted plant is watered in a circular groove at the border of the root circle, but is not fed.
Here, perhaps, are all the secrets. Nothing complicated, right? But how much joy will bring you the children of your favorites, who have taken root in a new place. Beauty will settle on a summer cottage. And you did it!