Apple tree cultivation Aport
The history of this variety of apples is peculiar, because no one knows for sure the country that grew the first fruits. Some gardeners claim that for the first time the Aport apple tree was spotted in Ukraine more than 8 centuries ago, while others believe that Poland is the birthplace of trees.
Apple tree cultivation Aport
Description of the apple tree Aport should start with the external features of the tree. It has a massive trunk and a wide spreading crown of medium-density leaves. The main part of the cover belongs to young long shoots that are scattered along the edges of branches and covered with dark bark. Sometimes on these branches of medium thickness you can see cuttings.
The foliage of the apple tree has a round shape and medium size. Basically, it has a light green color, but is sometimes characterized by a swamp hue. Leaf plates have distinct sinewy designations and are covered with small villi, which create a soft cover.
Apples have a rounded shape, which on one side extends slightly, resembling a pyramid. The fetal shell is covered with a wax coating, has an average density and a fairly pronounced aroma.
The fruit has a greenish yellow color with red spots. When the apple is cut next to the peel, dark points characteristic of this variety are observed.
The inside of the fetus is almost white, of medium stiffness. The description suggests that the taste characteristics of the apple depend on the area in which it grows, but a certain similarity is still present. This is expressed in a sweet taste with sourness.
The average life span of an apple tree is 40 years. If you follow all the rules of growing and caring for a tree (pruning, fertilizing), this period can be increased.
An apple tree that has reached the age of 5-6 years can bring up to 150 kg of crop per season. The fruiting frequency is 1 time in 2 years, so you can not always get such a good crop. If the apple tree began to bring less and less yield, the cause may be the introduction of an excessive amount of nitrogen fertilizers.
In a cool place, the fruits stay fresh for a long time
Thanks to proper care, the fruits can be stored in the refrigerator until mid-winter. If a large crop has been harvested, it can be put in a cool room.
Apples can be transported well over long distances if properly packaged so that they are not subject to mechanical damage. This variety is difficult to tolerate severe frosts characteristic of the Russian regions, so it is recommended to grow it on rootstocks.
Advantages and disadvantages
With proper agricultural technology, you can get about 150 kg of the crop, the size of the fruits themselves can reach up to 0.5 kg each. Among the positive qualities of these apples are:
- bright appearance;
- high productivity;
- taste features that are emphasized by aromatic spices;
- quite a long shelf life;
The variety is also characterized by a number of disadvantages, the main of which is a tendency to diseases, especially to scab. It is recommended that preventive measures be taken to combat it.
Another problem is the cyclical fruiting, in which farmers can get fruits once every 2-4 years, depending on the variety.
This apple tree has a rich species diversity:
- Aport Alexander has subtle differences from the main breeding variety - a little more blotches and stripes of red, as well as a more yellowish shade of pulp. The average weight of one fruit is about 300 g. The most interesting thing is that today it is almost never found anywhere, so gardeners are trying to revive it;
- Aport variety is blood red - the scarlet color covers almost the entire surface of the apples, and the flesh has a cream color and a spicy flavor. The main difference will be the fruiting frequency - 1 time in 4 years. This is directly related to the fact that after picking apples on the branches, pruning fruit buds is carried out. In connection with such care, the first year after removal of the shoots is fruitless, in the second year you can collect about three dozen fruits, and already in the 4th year, gardeners can boast a rich harvest;
- apple variety Aport Almaty is a symbolic fruit for Kazakhstan, which is even placed on a commemorative coin. It resembles the previous species, but is considered more whimsical to climatic conditions. The best place to grow it is a mountainous area with a planting height of about 1 km. If you deviate from this level in a smaller direction - the apples begin to ripen and deteriorate quickly, and if in a larger direction - they do not have time to collect enough sugar. Fruits can reach 900 g and maintain their external and taste characteristics until mid-spring;
- Aport Kuban variety ripens in mid-September. After harvesting, the fruits can be stored for 2 months. In size, the fruits are small, mostly greenish shades with pink splashes. The main feature of the variety is its resistance to frost and disease.
It is recommended to plant the variety in the fall, so that the root system is well strengthened and scores the right amount of nutrients from the soil. For planting, it is best to take already grown seedlings, in which the rhizome is well developed.
Apple trees need sunlight
The soil must be selected appropriate, which will have useful substances suitable for the formation of the apple tree Aport. It is recommended to plant material on drained loam.
If there is another soil cover in the area where the tree is planned to be planted, you can dig a hole of 1 m diameter on your own and pour sand, compost and some peat crumbs into it. Before this, it is recommended to mix all these substances.
The apple tree should be planted in a place well lit by sunlight. The depth of the groundwater horizon should be deeper than 1 m.
If the water is higher in this area, it is recommended to fill the soil mixture in order to increase the thickness of the earth for germination of the root system. Another condition is the construction of additional ditches through which excess moisture will be removed.
A hole must be dug so large that the root system has enough space for normal growth. If there is little soil, you can make this deepening more and add mineral fertilizers to it: humus, peat.
After this, the seedling is placed in a pit and the roots are sprinkled with earth, checking that free space does not form. It should be noted that the root neck should be several centimeters above the ground level so that the apple tree develops well.
It is better to prepare a place for planting a seedling in a week so that the soil is well compacted. After planting, a ditch is made around the tree, into which water is poured until it is no longer absorbed. The space near the trunk is mulched with humus.
After the seedling has been introduced into the open ground, it needs comprehensive care during the first years of its formation and development.
Watering is especially important in dry weather. For a young apple tree, it is enough to perform this procedure 2 times a week in the evening, when the heat subsides, 1 bucket of water per tree. A good way to preserve moisture is with humus mulching.
In this regard, the humus layer will retain moisture on the surface of the earth and prevent the root system from drying out. Watering is recommended to be carried out in the periosternal ditch so that the roots can get enough water.
Feeding is recommended 2 times a year: in spring and autumn. Use fertilizers rich in minerals and nitrogen-containing elements. Thanks to the introduction of nitrogen, the tree receives a full range of substances that support the development of its vegetative properties. They are used before the arrival of autumn, so that new shoots do not begin to form on the tree.
Fertilize the tree twice a year
Often take urea in a volume of 0.5 kg and distribute over the entire area around the trunk. This procedure is performed in the spring. If precipitation is not observed during this period, then urea is dissolved in 10 l of water. Also, 50 g of urea dissolved in 10 l of water is used to spray the crown of an apple tree.
In autumn, it is recommended to make mineral fertilizers that will help the apple tree stock up with all the nutrients for the winter period: potassium, superphosphate and calcium, diluted in water.
Pruning is necessary throughout the life of the tree. First, the branches are cut to form the crown of the apple tree. The lateral young shoots are mainly cut and the trunk height is shortened to a size of 85 cm so that the tree can receive a sufficient amount of nutrients.
After that, it is recommended to periodically cut the branches so that the crown is not very thick, and also that the bent shoots do not interfere with each other's growth. When the tree fades and apple harvest takes place, it will be necessary to prune old and dry branches, which can interfere with the growth of new ones.
Pruning rejuvenates the apple tree and helps protect it from pests and various diseases.
Pest and Disease Control
Protection against diseases and pests includes a set of preventive measures from spraying and fertilizing the soil. Most often, the apple tree is exposed to diseases such as scab, apple cancer and powdery mildew.
The main methods of combating such diseases are spraying a tree with a solution of urea, Bordeaux liquid and other insecticidal drugs.
Ripening and fruiting
After placing the seedling in the ground, after 5 years, with proper care of the apple tree, you can get the first crop. This period is much shorter than that of trees similar to this variety.
The period of active flowering occurs in June. At this time, the tree is covered with pink inflorescences, which spread their aroma to all adjacent territories.
Apples can be harvested at the end of September or at the beginning of October. Fruits can be stored for 3 months in a cool place. If the fruit will lie longer, its structure and taste may change.
Features of growing in different regions
The apple tree variety is suitable for cultivation in various regions. In the suburbs, attention should be paid to top dressing, as the soils there are not rich enough in mineral components. It is necessary to constantly loosen the earth and monitor the increase in groundwater levels.
In the colder regions of Russia, in the Urals and Siberia, the apple tree is grown on winter-hardy stocks so that the tree does not freeze. In Altai, dwarf rootstocks can be used on which this variety can be successfully grown. During the flowering period, special attention should be paid to fertilizing.
According to reviews, the fruits of the Aport apple tree can not be stored for more than 3 months. They are best used for processing. This applies to the winter preservation and production of wine of our own production, as This variety of apples has sufficient juiciness for this. They will also be good at making apple jam with the addition of orange.