Amazing and rare mushrooms of the world.
Mushrooms are one of the largest and most diverse groups of living organisms, numbering around 250 thousand species worldwide. Their structural features and vital functions made it possible to isolate these organisms in a separate kingdom - Mushrooms. There are also unusual mushrooms. They differ from those that we usually collect in appearance, properties and growth conditions.
Amazing and rare mushrooms of the world.
General characteristics of mushrooms
Mushrooms are one of the most controversial forms of living organisms on the planet. Previously, they were attributed to the kingdom of the Plant, but with the development of science, scientists have proved the need to distinguish them as a separate large systematic unit - the kingdom. The reason for this is their difference from plants and animals:
- the structure of the fungal cell differs from that characteristic of plants and animals (the presence of several nuclei, the chitinous membrane of the cell);
- unlimited growth in time;
- reproduction using mycelium.
Mushrooms that have fruiting bodies are classified as higher. They are divided according to structural features and sporulation into Ascomycetes, or Marsupials and Basidiomycetes.
According to human use, 3 groups are distinguished: edible, inedible and poisonous. In addition, their microscopic representatives (micromycetes) also belong to fungi: yeast.
The structure of an ordinary fungus, which is called higher, includes in addition to the vegetative body (mycelium) a fruit body that has a hat and a leg, varying in thickness, shape, color and surface structure. In mushrooms familiar to us, they are similar and have only slight differences.
On the planet there are many species of representatives of the kingdom of mushrooms, striking in their appearance, significantly different from the regulars of the mushroom picker basket.
Unusual mushrooms of the world
The most unusual mushrooms can be found in ordinary places on our planet. Their names are often determined by the features of their appearance and interesting growth facts.
The most prominent representative of such mushrooms is the white truffle, whose undoubted advantage is edibility and high nutritional value. This is a representative of the Truffle family, famous for underground tuberous fruit bodies. It is rarer than black; it grows in Italy, in the provinces of Piedmont and Umbria. It has a shape similar to Jerusalem artichoke, a beige-brown skin and a light streaky pulp. This unusual mushroom is highly valued in the world for its taste and unsurpassed nutty aroma.
The next in the list of unique ones is called a luminescent mushroom . He has an unusual ability to glow in the dark, thanks to the biochemical processes taking place in his body. It is common in Japan and Brazil. It grows at the foot of trees, near their broken branches or simply in moist soil. It is not eaten.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
Bioluminescence is the ability of various living organisms to glow from the inside. Bioluminescence is based on chemical processes, as a result of which energy is released in the form of light.
Green luminous mushrooms - Mycena Chlorophos were discovered in the nineteenth century on one of the Japanese islands - Bonin. To date, it has been established that luminescent mushrooms are found not only in Japan, but also spread throughout Brazil, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Indonesia and Malaysia. Their number increases sharply after heavy rain.
The blue mushroom has the same unusual appearance. It is found in India and New Zealand. Its unusual sky-blue color is due to the presence of azulene in the pigment. He prefers to grow places with high humidity: among moss, fallen leaves and thickets of fern. It is inedible.
Luminescent mushrooms glow in the dark
A mushroom bleeding tooth (Pekka gidnellum) is considered the record holder for an eerie, but at the same time attractive appearance. It occurs in the autumn in the coniferous forests of North America, Europe, Iran, Korea. It has a bumpy, white color, with a slightly pinkish tint, an irregularly shaped hat. In the process of growth, drops of red liquid are attracted to it, attracting insects. The flesh of a young fruiting body is dense; in old age it becomes cork-like. It is not eaten because of the repulsive appearance and bitter taste.
Representatives of unusual inedible mushrooms include the bird's nest, which belongs to mold. The variety got its unusual name because of the original form, which is really similar to the bird’s nest, inside which there are eggs. These are spores that, under the influence of moisture accumulating in them, burst and fly around. The bird's nest is a saprophyte; it selects rotting wood for growth in the forests of New Zealand for growth.
Exotic for us, the sea anemone mushroom, which looks more like an unusual flower, grows in Australia on a wet forest litter. His hat resembles a starfish of coral red color, the leg is white. It exudes an unpleasant smell of rotting meat or carrion, which attracts the fly-carriers of its spores.
Irina Selyutina (Biologist):
This amazing mushroom can even be called "cunning." In order not to “provoke” the Australians who take walks in a wooded area, at the first stages of its development, it resembles a grebe in its whitish color. But after some time, the appearance will begin to radically change. And literally in a couple of months a monster is “born”. His hat by this time is divided into 3-4 parts, which resemble flower petals and acquire a red color. The published fetid odor is a protective mechanism against forest four-legged gourmets.
Another amazing mushroom is considered to be an orange tremor . Her favorite places of growth are dead trees and recently broken branches. The fruit body is similar to a gelatinous mass with a winding and sticky surface. In the absence of rain, it dries and wrinkles, and when enough moisture is received, it again becomes the same. The fungus is distributed mainly in tropical regions of the world: in Africa, Asia, Australia, North and South America.
Rare mushrooms in Russia
Amazing and rare mushrooms are found in Russia. Among them there are unusual inedible and poisonous mushrooms, some have almost disappeared, so information about them is contained in the Red Book.
The names and descriptions of rare edible and inedible mushrooms are as follows:
- Umbrella tinder (griffin): common in the European part of Russia. It has a bushy shape, consisting of numerous legs connected at the base, and hats with small indentations in the center, beige-brown. Prefers deciduous forests. A variation similar to it is popularly called ram mushroom and differs in a fan-shaped form of a hat. Young fruiting bodies are eaten, old ones are inedible due to a burning taste.
- Golovach is giant: it is an edible mushroom of the Champignon family, growing on the edges of forests, meadows, fields, pastures. The fruit body has a spherical, slightly flattened shape, reaching 50 cm in diameter and weighing up to several kilograms. In a young individual, the color is white, with age acquires a yellowish tint and cracks. Interestingly, appearing once in one place, this mushroom may disappear altogether or not appear there for a long time. therefore, as a joke, these mushrooms are called "meteor".
- Gericia coral, or coral blackberry: tasty and healthy mushroom. Due to its rarity, it is listed in the Red Book. It is a parasite, settles on the trunks of weakened trees in deciduous forests of Siberia, the Urals, the Dolny Vostok and Krasnodar Territory. In appearance, the fruit body resembles coral: it consists of small twigs, covered with small fragile spines of white, pinkish or cream color. The pulp is tender with a pleasant taste. It is eaten young.
- Hedgehog comb, or "lion's mane": also parasitizes on trees. Outwardly, it looks like noodles: small light cream-colored “spikes” hang down. The pulp is white and dense, tastes like seafood. The variety is widely used in medicine to remove toxins from the body and reduce blood sugar. This mushroom grows in the Khabarovsk and Primorsky Territories, Amur Region of Russia.
- Curly Sparassis, or Mushroom Cabbage: This is a parasite that grows on the roots of trees. It has a bushy, spherical fruit body, resembling a head of cauliflower, white and yellow. This is a rare and endangered species listed in the Red Book. It is common in Siberia, the Far East and Karelia.
- Flax- cone cone : in appearance it resembles a cone, with a scaly hat of gray-brown color. The pulp is whitish, without a pronounced taste and smell. It is eaten, but has a fresh taste. It grows in the northern regions of the country.
- Dog Mutinus: an unusual mushroom in appearance. Its fruiting body is a formation emerging from the egg membrane at the base, pinkish-yellow in color without a hat. It is not consumed because of an unpleasant odor, the source of which is the mucous apex and toxins. It is found in Karelia, Primorsky and Krasnodar Territory.
- Common line: distributed throughout the forests of the temperate zone of the country. The hat of the fruiting body resembles in appearance the core of a walnut. This fungus is poisonous (the gyromitrin toxin is present in its body), it is not consumed in raw form, it requires careful and lengthy processing, which, unfortunately, does not always guarantee disposal of toxins.
The listed mushrooms are far from all of the known, unusual representatives of the kingdom encountered in the world. Even the poisonous fly agaric, familiar to us, differ from the usual ones in their bright color. Many of the rare representatives of the mushroom kingdom disappear, therefore, are protected by the laws of the states in which they grow. In addition, such mushrooms are included in the international Red Books.